Financial services & requisite organization bibliography
Fin-Srvs-RO_Biblio-subset_2014 -- ver. 1.1 4-11-2014
|by: Ken Craddock|
This is a subset of the Annotated Bibliography items that show a link between Financial Services (FS) and Requisite Organization (RO). This includes all types of FS firms including banks, insurance, and credit. This group includes some weaker ones – securities, funds, brokerage, retirements, branch(es) - and names of advocates Waitzer, van Clieaf, Capelle, and Ambachtsheer.
The main Bibliography was designed to be used by graduate students, business analysts, and security analysts. This subset should be a quick reference for business practitioners and consultants seeking the linkage in the industry. It is in two Alpha lists: Cases and General. Included are some 24 cases. 42 p.
Angus-Leppan, Tamsin, and Tim Williams, 2011, “Westpac Banking Corporation: what do we mean by sustainability,” chapter 12 (p. 138-146) in Benn, Suzanne, Dexter Dunphy, and Bruce Perrott, eds., 2011, Cases in Corporate Sustainability and Change: a multidisciplinary approach, Tilde U. Press, Prahran, Vic, AU, 166 p. Westpac is the leading AU bank. It has received high marks from outside agencies, such as Dow Jones, regarding its environmental sustainability activities. But gaining a shared understanding of sustainability amongst stakeholders is very difficult in a large organization. (Also, 'sustainability' comes in two senses: internal and external to the organization. It means leadership, training, and structure, but it also means the environment and the community.) Jaques not cited – but let's all get on the same page is the next step. Clio Bus HD60 .B466 2011g. At UT Sydney, AU. A case. Teach. # Rp. Ch. UP.
Capelle, Ronald G., 2013, Optimizing Organization Design: A Proven Approach to Enhance Financial Performance, Customer Satisfaction and Employee Engagement, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, Cal., US, 496 p. Optimizing organization design provides a competitive advantage and a significant return on investment. It comprises the alignment of a number of critical factors, including positions (vertical and functional), authorities and accountabilities (managerial and cross functional), people, deliverables, and tasks. He shows that manager–direct report alignment is the single most important organization design variable. It is now suboptimal nearly half the time. This is a horrendous waste of talent and capability, but also provides a significant opportunity for improvement in organization performance. This approach can become the foundation of both strategy implementation and HR management. Four cases. 23 research studies. Rp. Bk.
Carew, Edna, 1997, Westpac, the bank that broke the bank, Doubleday, Sydney, NSW, AU, and NY, NY, USA, 460 p. In the early 1980s NSW banks merged to form the Westpac Bank. (It used Bill Reddin’s methods to ‘unfreeze’ the bank prior to merger. It worked and became a case at IMEDE, the business school in Laussane SZ, p. 16. See case.) By 1992 the new bank had tripled in size and bad loans had made it wobbly. Kerry Packer and Al Dunlap made a run at it, failed, and resigned. Then the chairman picked Robert Joss, VP of Wells Fargo, to lead the bank out of its troubles. A photo of him declares he was ‘smarter’ than his predecessor. His efforts were largely successful. (Recommended by Andrew Olivier in AU.) Not in CUNY or NYPL. Clio BusHG3448 .W47 C37 1997g. MS. Bk.
Conklin, David W., 2005, “Risks and Rewards in HR Business Process Outsourcing,” Long Range Planning, UK, Dec. 2005, 38(6):579-598. CIBC: a case. Reviewed the literature to date and studied the example of one of the earliest cases of outsourcing an HR business process, when EDS took on the responsibility for Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. With offloading, such as payroll and recruitment, a company's HR department could concentrate on strategy and become a facilitator for change. Role of trust. Appendix - CIBC. EDS. Cited Das & Teng 1998, 2004; Humphreys et al 2002; Kakabadse 2002. At Ivey, UWO. # Rp. PJ. A.
Das, Tushar K., 1971, “Reorganisation in State Bank of India,” Lok Udyog, [Public Enterprise], New Delhi, IN, Nov. 1971, 5(8):781-792. The outside consultants were Professors Ishwar Dayal and S. K. Bhattachatyya of IIM-Ahmedabad. A description of the existing structure and short-term perspective, prior piecemeal changes, the proposed plan of reorganisation, organisation objectives, structure of tasks, organisation of banking activities, creating marketing expertise, establishing management control, streamlining administrative practices, and implementating this task in several stages. A case. Cited in Dayal 1976 (p. 90). NYPL SIBL os JLM 71-55. v. 5, 1971. Staff Officer in Reorganisation Dept., State Bank of India, Bombay. # Rp. PJ.
Dunphy, Dexter, and Bruce Perrott, 2011, “Westfield Talent Management: creating a high performance culture in Australian Operations Finance,” chapter 11 (p. 121-137) in Benn, Suzanne, Dexter Dunphy, and Bruce Perrott, eds., 2011, Cases in Corporate Sustainability and Change: a multidisciplinary approach, Tilde U. Press, Prahran, Vic, AU, 166 p. ('Sustainability' comes in two senses: internal and external to the organization.) The commercial operations of Westfield had grown faster than the back-office functions could handle. Big changes were needed: attracting and developing talent, capability, retaining talent, and maximizing impact. Leadership training was needed: thought leadership, people, results, and self. Creating a talent pool to handle these changes. Linking roles, and internal and external partners were created. Value was leveraged across the firm and internationally. westfield.com.au Cited IBM studies 2008 (2). Jaques not cited – but hey. Clio Bus HD60 .B466 2011g. All 3 at UT Sydney, AU. A case. Teach. # Rp. Ch. UP.
Hitt, Michael A., R. Duane. Ireland, and Robert E. Hoskisson, 2008, Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization, 5th edn. (?), Thomson-South Western, Mason, OH, US, 479 p. Preparing an Effective Case Analysis. Case 3: Barclays Bank (UK). Case 27: Tesco versus Sainsbury (UK). Both are requisite RO cases. ECA: # Rp. Ch.
Kakabadse, Andrew P., and Charles Margerison, 1981, “Developing Management Development: An Intervention into a Bank,” Management International Review, Weisbaden, Germany, 21(4):73-78. Authors set up an internal management development programme in a bank. Bankers making other bankers, specifically branch managers. Workshop participants identified three areas of concern: managing relationships, adapt to new job requirements, and the ability to manage superiors. A course was given, evaluated and research was proposed including current problems facing managers. A case. # Rp. PJ.
Koike, Kazuo, and Takenori Inoki, 1990, Skill Formation in Japan and Southeast Asia, Tokyo University Press, Tokyo, Japan, 252 p. [Jinzai keisei no kokusai hikaku] Published in Japanese in 1987. (These two were the authors. They were not editors.) An in-depth look at the intellectual skill development and acquisition methods of Japanese employers as they were being extended across Asia (Thailand and Malaysia). Theory (p. 1-70) and four cases: in cement, car batteries, machine tools, and banking. This was an extension of the US-Japan study (Koike 1984). Usual economic model in the West views capital (K) as key with labor (L) in a supporting role, with management’s goal to deskill the labor effort. (This deskilling is a fallacy.) “Workers’ skill is an extremely important variable in an economy, more so than is usually realized.” The Japanese OJT and career path systems created and were sufficient to explain the productivity gap (p. 22-27). The others didn’t. Inoki chapter used by Lam 1996. Cited Morikiyo 1981 (on p. 4). See career paths (p. 249). See carpenter’s craft-based union in Japan and US (p. 4). Not in CUNY; not NYU. Clio os HD5715.5.J3 J5513 1990. NYPL SIBL JBE 91-1802. MS. Bk.
Levy, Frank, and Richard J. Murnane, 1996, “With What Skills Are Computers a Complement?,” The American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundredth and Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, San Francisco, CA, January 5-7, 1996, [Technology, Human Capital, and the Wage Structure.], May 1996, 86(2):258-262. A bank hired college graduates in its custodian unit when computers were installed in the 1980s. Was the job really changed to allow them to do the higher-level problem-solving as management thought? Not so fast. A high quit rate indicated the computer may have created speed-up at the same skill level as before. Alternatively, the computer increased both the trading volume and the complexity of the derivatives traded, making the pricing of assets far more complex than the managers thought, and fundamentally changing the job itself. (Used some RO terms.) Supports RO practice. A case. A lovely case. # MS. PJ. A.
Macdonald, Ian, Catherine Burke, and Karl Stewart, 2006, Systems Leadership: Creating Positive Organizations, Gower, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 312 p. eISBN: 9780754683131 ISBN: 9780566087004 Concerned with how people come together to achieve a productive purpose. People have a deep need to belong and to be creative. A positive organization can both fulfill needs and create a worthwhile society. This requires the hard work of leadership. (“The management approach proffered has successfully underpinned Rio Tinto's management system for more than a quarter century. Not necessarily a ‘How To’ book, but full of good management sense backed by conceptual frameworks.”) Only leadership that is aware of Jaques’ and Brown’s theory - and the discipline - has a chance of success. Contents: Nine principles of behavior. The nature of work and organisations. Systems leadership. Making change happen – putting theory into practice. See Billis 2008 US bk rev. Cited in McGill 2007. Clio ebook & CUNY ebook. LC Call: HM791 -- .M33 2006eb. Dewey: 658.4/092. Rp. Bk. CD
Effective Leadership Programme: Commonwealth Bank of AU (CBA) – Geoff McGill.
Martin, Stephen, 1995, “A futures market for competencies,” People Management, Personnel Publications, Ltd., London, UK, 23 March 1995, 1(6):20-23. 3,727 words. (Includes related article.) HR strategists at Chase Manhattan are trying to link the bank's future supply of competencies directly to anticipated customer demands and in the process, throwing the traditional concept of `job lots' out of the 40th floor window. VP HR. [JPMorganChase] A case. Cited Jaques. (Rev. online 2003.) Teach. # Rp. PJ.
Martin, Stephen, and Lionel Laroche, 2000, “Demonstrating the bottom-line impact of HR: a competencies case study,” Competency and Emotional Intelligence, London, UK, Autumn 2000, 8(1)30-34. Few personnel managers are aware of the research and the processes that permit rational return-on-investment (ROI) assessments to be made in the world of HR. This case study is drawn from a real proposal, offered to the NY executive committee of a large international financial services organisation. The task was to persuade financially-sophisticated HR sceptics that making a significant investment in a major programme of competency analysis and applications in recruitment, development and performance management was worth it. Even allowing for a relatively large budget to cover the additional costs of training needs analysis, planning and delivery, the results represented a gross ROI of 243% on successful implementation (maybe as high as 388%). (Given that, in many organisations, the minimum required one-year ROI for capital projects is 20% to 40%, such arguments become somewhat academic.) An ITAP study. Cited Hunter, Schmidt and Judiesch 1990. A case. Teach. # Rp. PJ.
Stace, Doug A., and Dexter C. Dunphy, 1990, Under New Management: Organisations in Transition, McGraw-Hill, Sydney, NSW, AU, 218 p. People were the core of the enterprise. The key shift was from a financial business strategy to human performance. Cases included Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Westpac Banking, Suncorp. Insurance, and ANZ Banking. Jaques not cited. Cited Burns 1978; Hilmer lots. Cited by Paul Lynch, PhD 2011; Hilmer 1991. Not in CUNY,Clio. NYPL os JBE 91-502. MS. Bk.
Turner, Graham, 1985, “A New Strategy at Barclays,” Long Range Planning, UK, June, 18(3):12-16. Barclay's Bank was moving from a one-year financial plan to a 10-year strategic one. The bank will become one integrated entity. An additional layer of general managers has been created to decide the strategic direction of the bank worldwide. A case. # Rp. PJ. A.
Turner, Graham, 1986, “Inside Europe’s Giant Companies: Nestlé Finds a Better Formula,” Long Range Planning, UK, June, 19(3):12-19. Nestle. Nestlé has become one of the most international companies in the world. Of its top 100 managers, about half are non-Swiss. The sales were split one third U.S., one third Europe and one third the rest of the world. Power has moved to the line managers. In the financial field, the subsidiaries have to finance their entire working capital locally, though there is central liquidity. A case. # Rp. PJ. A.
Weiss, Andrew M., 1999, “Why Institutions Systematically Underperform Broadly Based Market Indexes,” Journal of Investing, New York, NY, Spring 1999, 8(1):65-74. (Also published in Global Investor, London, UK, June 1999, p. 27-36.) In the 1970s and again in the 1980s pension funds underperformed the S&P 500. Weiss outlines what to look for when selecting a money management company. Basically, these firms hire and retain their managers using the wrong selection criteria. Then they mismanage them. (Linked profits/ returns/ performance to personnel practices. Neat. Cited Brown (?) in Weiss' 1976 PhD (Interesting). A case.) See Ambachtsheer, Capelle, et al 1998; Bryne 1993; Wallach, Kogan, and Bem 1964. At Boston U. # MS. PJ.
Wijnberg, Nachoem M., Jan van den Ende, and Onno de Wit, 2002, "Decision Making at Different Levels of the Organization and the Impact of New Information Technology: Two Cases from the Financial Sector," Group and Organization Management, Sage, Sept. 2002, 27(3):408-429. doi: 10.1177/1059601102027003005. Focused on the impact of information technologies on the upstream and downstream flows of information. Systematic management emphasized the vertical, decision-making aspect of management. Scientific management (Taylorism) stressed the increased organization of the workplace (lower, horizontal). Service firms will be more open to the systematic approach than manufacturing firms. Nevertheless, Taylorism failed in the bank that tried it. The chances of success were increased by employing the new technology to enable employees at lower levels of the organization to be more, instead of less, concerned with performance objectives of the firm. Cited in Prakash & Gupta 2008. Jaques not cited. Cited Litterer 1961; Yates 1989. A case. At Erasmus U., Rotterdam, NL. # Refu. PJ.
Abelson, Hal R., 1986, “Time Management: Avoid On the Job Draining,” Credit and Financial Management, National Association of Credit Management, New York, NY, Feb., 88(2):12-14. Managers must match the time-span of the role to the time horizon of the employee or face a decline in efficiency. D. Pro.
Agarwal, Naresh Chand, 1975, A Study of Executive Compensation Differentials, PhD, dissertation in Industrial Relations (Business Administration), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 117 pages. UMI AAT 7527199. DAI-A 36/06, p. 3838, Dec 1975. TC Wilson Library Theses MnU-D 74-422. [1974?]. Published as three articles: Agarwal, Naresh C., 1979, “On the Interchangeability of Size Measures,” (Research Notes), The Academy of Management Journal, June, 22(2):404-409. Also, HR 1979 and IR 1981. (Article was from the dissertation but did not reference Jaques.) Data base was 168 insurance companies. A significant positive relationship was found between executive pay and job complexity. Equity theory has considered job complexity and its relationship to compensation from the viewpoint of employees, who hold implicit standards of fair pay relating to the level of responsibility involved in the job. Results show company size explains a significant part of the variance in executive pay which it shares with job complexity and the company’s ability to pay. (See Bradley, Mary Irene, PhD 1989, Temple University, for an extension of the ideas in this dissertation. Interesting PhD.) See Mayer 1960 and Theocarakis 1990 PhD on scale of operations effect. (Currently teaching at DeGroote Business School, McMaster U., Hamilton, ON. Email: agarwal @ univmail.cis. mcmaster.ca ) PhD on RO.
Agarwal, Naresh C., 1979, “On the Interchangeability of Size Measures,” (Research Notes), The Academy of Management Journal, June, 22(2):404-409. (Article is from the 1975 dissertation but does not refer to Jaques.) Data base was 168 insurance companies. # MS. PJ. A.
Agarwal, Naresh C., 1979, “Nature of Size-Structure Relationship: Some Further Evidence,” Human Relations, London, UK and Ann Arbor, MI, June, 32(6):441-450. doi: 10.1177/001872677903200601 The size of top managers’ salaries was related to the number of managerial layers in the organization (found the Hay system and Simon 1957). Found two types of differentiation: functional and vertical. Cited Blau, not Jaques. # MS. PJ.
Agarwal, Naresh C., 1981, “Determinations of Executive Compensation,” Industrial Relations, Berkeley, CA, Winter, 20(1):36-45. “A classic empirical study.” Study of 168 Canadian and American CEOs in insurance companies. “Two organizational factors - job complexity and [company] ability to pay - appear to be far more important determinants [r2 = +0.789] than individual characteristics .... Results indicate company size is closely related to job complexity and the employer’s ability to pay. (p. 43, 44)” Agarwal used economic sources, such as R. Marris, rather than psychological ones in this article. Focused on AP:MgtLvl, but findings also were “consistent with” Kuethe and Levenson 1964 (FFP:MgtLvl). Did not cite Mahoney’s 1979 replication or Jaques. Thanked Mahoney. Cited in McGee 1984 PhD, Henderson and Fredrickson 1996, Bradley PhD 1989. # Rp. PJ. A.
Ambachtsheer, Keith, Ronald G. Capelle, and Tom Scheibelhut, 1998, “Improving Pension Fund Performance,” Financial Analysts Journal, Association for Investment Management and Research, CFA Institute, Charlottesville, VA, November/December, 54(6):15–20. A study of 80 major pension funds focused on pension fund financial performance in relation to organization design. Illustrated the powerful relationship between better organization design (requisite) and better bottom line financial results. See A. Weiss 1999. # Rp. Pro.
Ambachtsheer, Keith P., and D. Don Ezra, 1998, Pension Fund Excellence: creating value for stockholders, Wiley, NY, NY, US, 238 p. As the 1998 project and its findings unfold the project is also impacting organization design in the pension fund sector as a whole. (The author claims this book rose from Ron's intervention.) Jaques and Capelle not mentioned. Nice quotes. Clio os HD7105.4 .A58 1998. NYPL SIBL - Ref *R-SIBL HD7105.4 .A58. MS. Bk.
Ambachtsheer, Keith P., Ronald G. Capelle, and Hubert Lum, 2007, "Trustee Competency," Pensions & Investments, Crain Comns., Chicago, IL, US, 6/11/2007, 35(12):18. From 1995 to 2004, we found a statistically positive association between governance and performance. NYPL & Clio online. # Rp. Pro.
Ambachtsheer, Keith, Ronald Capelle, and Hubert Lum, 2008, "The Pension Governance Deficit: Still With Us," Rotman International Journal of Pension Management, Toronto, ON., Can., 1(1):14-21. As was the case in the 1998 investigation into the quality of pension fund governance, we found a positive correlation between governance quality and fund performance. The selection processes for members were often haphazard. Self-evaluation of board effectiveness was the exception, not the rule. Weak oversight continues to lead to difficulties in sorting out competing financial interests of differing stakeholder groups, and results in organization dysfunction. Examples are board micro-management, lack of delegation clarity between board and management responsibilities, and non-competitive compensation policies in pension funds. Cited Ambachtsheer et al 1998; Capelle 2004. Online: open journal. # Rp. PJ.
Ambachtsheer, Keith, Mark van Clieaf, and Edward J. Waitzer, 2012, Comment Letter on Revisions to the Corporate Governance Guideline, (sent to Vlasios Melessanakis, Director, Policy Development, Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, Ottawa, ON K1A OH2) Sept. 12, 6 p. Sustainability. Our concerns extend to managerial controls systems from the CEO role to the front line to ensure goal setting and decision making alignment that should cascade at each level in an effective and accountable managerial hierarchy. The selection of senior executives and board members who lack the capacity to understand the complexity of the global financial system to which the institution contributes and impacts should be addressed. The risk horizon of the enterprise (generally in the 5 to 10 year range to credit default) with the longest performance periods and pay delivery for executive officers and other key roles in financial institutions should be included. The role function of the Chief Organization & Human Resources Officer is not mentioned in the draft Guideline. A deep understanding by the board of the organization’s strategic risks and related management processes is assumed. Given our comments, we strongly recommend that this assumption be made more explicit. The failure of the U.S. financial system (in particular) to develop strong internal governance practices and effective regulatory oversight is a material concern globally. # MS. Rep.
Aoki, Masahiko, 1990, “Toward an Economic Model of the Japanese Firm,” Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, March, 28(1):1-27. A most interesting article on the shared-control or dual-control features of the Japanese industrial organization. Banks and managers shared control at the upper end of the firm. And managers and workers shared control at the lower end of the firm. These three elements were kept in a creative tension. Many observers saw this as a loss of control by the owners (but they clearly did well financially). Contrasted the American agency-model to this Japanese model. (Aoki was writing about the spread of “discretion” across Japanese firms.) MS. PJ. A.
Armstrong, Grant, 2011, Leadership in Times of Change: An examination of a merger experience, EdD, dissertation in Management and Business Education, Theory and Policy Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada, 206 p. Advisor: Ryan, James. In English. DAI-A 73/06, Dec 2012. ISBN: 9780494781203. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 2011. Num. NR78120. Unpublished. This study examines leadership practices within a financial organization during a merger and explores how these practices influence the merger. This study also identifies challenges faced by organizations during the merger process. Interviews were conducted with 17 leaders to understand what leaders do in times of mergers. Through their stories, they identified leadership practices and described how these practices influenced the merger process. Seven leadership themes emerged from the data including: (a) Providing Strategic Vision, (b) Utilizing Effective Communication, (c) Creating a Positive Organizational Culture, (d) Commitment to Fairness, (e) Effective Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, (f) Problem Solving and Decision Making, and (g) Managing Change and the Unknown. Cited Jaques 1989 (RO); Lotz & Donald 2006. # Interesting PhD. A.
Atlas, Riva D., 2004, “Managing Money by Sizing Up Corporate Chiefs,” The New York Times, NY, Saturday, October 30, 2004, B1. Article about Ronald S. Baron who manages $8 billion in mutual funds and has been largely unaffected by recent industry scandals and losses. His annual meeting for investors, held on Oct. 22 at Avery Fisher Hall, had banners, “We invest in people, not just buildings.” CEOs of companies he owns address and meet his investors. He had recent losses in Sotheby’s and Charles Schwab brokerage but his Baron Growth fund was up 13.7% while the S&P 500 was up 1.4%. (Unclear if he uses TSD/RO. Worth further investigation.) MS. Newspr.
Auster, Ellen R., and Mark L. Sirower, 2002, “The dynamics of merger and acquisition waves: A three-stage conceptual framework with implications for practice,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Arlington, VA, June 2002, 38(2):216-244. The past two decades have witnessed the largest merger and acquisition waves in history. Yet, the empirical evidence suggests that the perceived financial benefits of M&As often are not realized for corporate acquirers. This study builds a three-stage conceptual framework to illuminate and explain this phenomenon. From this framework, key points often missed are revealed. Misc. PJ. A.
Autor, David H., Frank Levy, and Richard J. Murnane, 2002, “Upstairs, Downstairs: Computers and Skills on Two Floors of a Large Bank,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, NY, US, April 2002, 55(3):432– 447. ISSN: 00197939. Many studies document a positive correlation between workplace computerization and employment of skilled labor in production. Improvements in computer-based technology create incentives to substitute machinery for people in performing tasks that can be fully described by procedural or 'rules-based' logic and hence performed by a computer. This process typically leaves many tasks unaltered, and management plays a key role--at least in the short run--in determining how these tasks are organized into jobs, with significant implications for skill demands. This conceptual framework proves useful. In one department, the tasks not computerized were subdivided into narrow jobs; in the other department, management combined multiple linked tasks to create jobs of greater complexity. The framework may be applicable to many organizations. At MIT; MIT; Harvard. Cited in Autor et al 2003. [Described shifting LoW, but unaware of it.] # MS. PJ. A.
Bantel, Karen A., and Susan E. Jackson, 1989, “Top Management and Innovations in Banking: Does the composition of the top team make a difference? Strategic Management Journal, Special Issue, Wiley, US, Summer 1989, 10:107-124. Sample of 199 banks. The more innovative banks were managed by more educated teams who were diverse with respect to their functional area of expertise. [Cognitivity and design.] Baruch Perls. MS. PJ. A.
Barker, Vincent L., III, and George C Mueller, 2002, “CEO characteristics and firm R&D spending,” Management Science, Informs, Linthicum, US, June 2002, 48(6):782-801. Previous research highlighted the influence of external ownership, the industry, and firm strategy on the R&D investment decision. Adopted the “upper echelons” perspective and examined how R&D spending varied with visible CEO characteristics. R&D spending was greater when the CEO was younger, had greater wealth invested in the stock, had more career experience in marketing and/or engineering/R&D. It also was more when the CEO had an advanced degree in science, and it increased the longer the CEO’s tenure. Oddly, the younger CEOs had the longer time horizon. (Sic!) [Years to retirement may have been the key.] Very provocative. Hard CUNY - Hunter Mn Percls, JJay HD28 .I453, Baruch (Jan-June), Grad Ctr (no vol. 48). # Alt. PJ. A.
Bartel, Ann P., 2004, “Human Resource Management and Organizational Performance: Evidence from Retail Banking,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY, Jan2004, 57(2):181-203. In a large Canadian bank the HRM environment varied greatly across branches and over time. An analysis of responses to the bank's employee attitude survey that unobserved branch and manager characteristics showed a positive relationship between branch performance and employees' satisfaction with the quality of performance evaluation, feedback, and recognition at the branch - the "incentives" dimension of a high-performance work system. Satisfaction with the quality of communications was also important. Cited Ichniowski 1996, 1997; MacDuffie 1995; Huselid 1995. Jaques not cited. (4 of 5 Canadian banks use RO.) At Columbia B-school & NBER. # MS. PJ. A.
Bassarab, Christine, 2010, Understanding how the leaders of three failed investment banks mismanaged early warning signals during the 2008 credit crisis, PhD, dissertation in Management, Occupational psychology, and Organizational behavior, Alliant International University, San Francisco Bay, Cal, US 416 p. Advisor: Ian Mitroff. DAI-B 72/01, Jul 2011. ISBN: 9781124366517. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 2010. Num. 3436965. Unpublished. Examined senior executives of Bear Sterns, Lehman Brothers, and Merrill Lynch, and system-wide early warning signals, a core component of effective crisis leadership. Made use of a model developed by Pearson and Clair (1998) that examined crises from three perspectives - technological-structural, social-political, and psychological (TSP). Crisis leadership was largely non-existent in these firms. Most efforts recognized early warning signals, but ignored the significant interdependencies, and focused on the technological-structural aspects of the crisis. Leaders had difficulty in managing trust and fear. Leaders' historical success in their roles made them overly confident in their abilities to manage the crisis and they were isolated from many of the complex aspects of their businesses. They did not fully understand how their business models and products added to the vulnerability of the financial system. Executive decision making was untouched by weak leadership teams and weak board governance as assumptions and judgments weren't fully challenged. Boards need to hold CEOs accountable for more than profitability and compensate accordingly. "Wall Street has long dismissed strategy as being irrelevant." Short-term profits were all. "Longer time horizons were disregarded as meaningless." Financial services. Cited Jaques 1989, 1991; Das 1996, 2004; Levinson 1972; Mumford & Connolly 1991; Zaccaro et al 2001; Bennis & Nanus 1985; Bentz 1985 (Sears, conf.); de Juan 2003; Ho 2009; Kets de Vries & Miller 1984, 1986; Marion & Uhl-Bien 2001; Mitchell & Scott 1987; Mitroff 2001, 2004, 2009; Nystrom & Starbuck 1984; Pearson & Clair 1998; Perrow 1999; Rotter 1967. See movie: Margin Call. Disn # PhD on RO.
Beechler, Schon, and John Zhuang Yang, 1994, “The Transfer of Japanese-Style Management to American Subsidiaries: Contingencies, Constraints, and Competencies,” Journal of International Business Studies, Atlanta, GA, 3rd Qtr. 1994, 25(3):467-491. 400,000 Americans were employed by Japanese affiliates in 1988 (JETRO 1991, p.17). Examined the cross-border transfers of the HRM practices of ten subsidiaries of Japanese multi-nationals in the U.S. (New York and Tennessee), five in services and five in manufacturing. Developed contingency factors that accounted for the parent firm’s administrative heritage, unique characteristics of the subsidiary, the host country’s conditions (economic, social, cultural), and the cultural distance between Japan and the host country (U.S.). Identified three schools of thought in the literature: culturalist, rationalist, and technology-HRM fit. Proposed a model that included strategic HRM and the technology-HRM fit for successful transfers. Found subsidiaries in the NY financial industry had to adopt US-style HR policies. “People in this industry are motivated by greed” (p. 479). MS. PJ. A.
Besser, Terry Lee, 1991, Japanese Management Through the Workers' Perspective, Ph.D., dissertation in Labor Relations, University of Kentucky, KY, 244 pages; AAT 9126898. DAI-A 52/04, p. 1537, Oct 1991. Advisor: James G. Houghland. Published as two articles, in 1993 and 1995, and as a book Team Toyota in 1996. Used grounded theory methodology. What is the meaning of Japanese management to individual American workers? How are features of Japanese management actualized within an organization? Team is divided into three main sub-types: work teams, company team, and the corporate team. The work team, consisting of four or five employees, is the primary functioning unit of the organization. The company team is at one higher level of analysis and includes all employees of the local organization. Through the company team, employees are encouraged to believe that all members of the organization share a “commonality of fate,” and thus will all share equitably in the rewards of organizational goal achievement. The corporate team consists of all the members of the corporation, manufacturers, banks, subsidiaries, etc. and the suppliers of the corporate members. The corporate team provides resources, history and culture which reinforces and legitimates belief in the “commonality of fate” notion. My analysis reveals major problems at each level, demonstrates how the three teams interface with and reinforce each other, and illustrates how the team theory assists in understanding important worker issues - workplace disability and the numbing quality of repetitious assembly work. Explicated how Japanese management is actualized at the level of the U.S. worker. Internationalization is particularly challenging for Japanese organizations operating overseas. Not seen. PhD on RO.
Bhasin, Pramod, 2011, “Genpact's CEO on Building an Industry In India from Scratch,” Harvard Business Review, US, June 2011, 89(6):45-48. Bhasin was the head of GE Capital in India in the late 1990s, when he had a vision for the future of a division to provide back-office services, such as processing car loans and credit card transactions for the local market. Why not take advantage of the eager, ambitious talent pool he could see all around him, both inside the company and across the country, to offer support services to GE Capital all over the world? The people he turned to were uniformly discouraging: How could he build a facility on the scale he would need, hire huge numbers of people and train them to Six Sigma standards on products they knew nothing about, and gain access to telecommunications and infrastructure at a level then unheard of in India? But Bhasin pressed on, and today Genpact (which was spun off from GE Capital in 2005) directly employs 43,000 people and serves 400 other companies in 13 countries. [Archimedes Principle.] Entrepreneurship. General Electric. # MS. Pro.
Bhide, Amar, 2010, A Call for Judgment, Oxford U. Press, UK & US, 353 p. With the use of computers top executives have become all-knowing beings. Ideology and financial models dictated from above remove judgment by those closer to the customers and markets, and thus our financial institutions have lost touch with reality. Baruch HG181 .B42 2010. MS. Bk. UP. A.
Bhidé, Amar, 2010, “The Judgment Deficit,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, US, Sep2010, 88(9):44-126. Individual judgment and initiative are essential to the success of the modern capitalist economy. In recent times, though, a new form of centralized control has taken root: mechanistic decision making based on top-down statistical models and algorithms. This has been especially true in finance, where risk models have replaced the judgments of thousands of individual bankers and investors, to disastrous effect. The problem with the statistical approach is that it cannot adequately account for the uncertainty inherent in economic decisions or the idiosyncratic nature of human activity. What finance in particular needs is a return to judgment. Computers shine when, like the configuration of pieces on a chess set, the number of possible outcomes is vast -- in fact, this vastness often gives the computer its edge -- but they all conform to well-specified rules. Conversely, human judgment is favored when shielding is difficult, outcomes are ambiguous, and the possibilities are open-ended. Based on book. See Hunt 1966; Woods 1985. At Tufts U., Fletcher, US. # MS. Pro.
Borucki, Chester C., and Alan F. Lafley, 1984, “Strategic Staffing at Chase Manhattan Bank,” chapter 5 (p. 69-86) in Fombrun, Charles, Noel M. Tichy, and Mary Ann Devanna, eds., 1984, Strategic Human Resource Management, John Wiley, New York, NY, 499 p. Lafley was the EVP HR at Chase. A history of Chase’s HR change efforts over the years. [This is just prior to the adoption by Chase of R.O. and the Career Crossroads model (from Mahler). JPMorganChase] See Stephen Martin 1995; Charan, et al, 2001. # MS. Ch.
Bounfour, Ahmed, 2003, Management of Intangibles: The Organisation’s Most Valuable Assets, Routledge, London, UK; New York, NY, 320 p. Ebook: Florence, KY, USA. The old financial maps of the firm were cracking. Only 1% - 25% of a corporation’s market value was represented on its balance sheet. A key point was the coherence of the arrangement of the human intangibles inside the organization. Did not cite Jaques. Misc. Bk.
Brookes, Donald V., 1993, “When Recruiting Future Execs, Look for Skill in Juggling Complexity,” American Banker, Aug. 16, 1993, p. 18. D. Pro.
Brookes, Donald V., 1995, “Lateral thinking. (management issues between bankers on the same level of authority),” Canadian Banker, Canadian Bankers Association, [Toronto, ON,] CA, 1 July 1995, 102(4):27. ISSN: 0822-6830. How to handle the misunderstandings that arise between bankers at similar levels of authority in today's "flattened" management hierarchies. (Brookes was a partner with KPMG Canada in Toronto, specializing in organizational design and management practices.) D. Pro.
Buijze, Anoeska, 2008, “Subjecting Executives in the Financial Sector to Reliability Scrutiny,” Utrecht Law Review, NL, Dec., 4(3):1-17. Per a recent EC law the context of the behavior of a financial executive was not to be considered. As a result, the discretion and situation of the employee was not considered by the manager. The newly-found ‘unreliable’ employee was simply dismissed. [Draconian, prescriptive, and anti-Requisite.] At Law U. Utrecht. MS. PJ.
Burnes, Bruce Benjamin, 1972, Some Principal Determinants and Equitable Perceptions of Chief Executive Salaries in the Commercial Banking Industry: A Partial Sub-System Analysis, Ph.D., dissertation in Business Administration, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 177 pages. UMI 7220096. DAI-A 33/01, p.10, July 1972. Unpublished. A survey of 906 banking CEO salaries, their determinants, and the satisfaction level of the CEO with their actual pay (AP). This set of variables explained 86% of the variance in non-owner CEO compensation (R=.928). (Owners paid themselves differently.) Variables included: (1) bank location, population, size of deposits, ability to pay, branch/non-branch, and ownership; and (2) CEO education, age, experience, and performance. CEO experience and bank population were significant. Significant geographic differences in compensation exist. (These two indicate metropolitan area equitable executive pay scales.) Overpaid CEOs were “significantly more satisfied with their compensation than chief executives receiving less than the system predicted amount. Chi-squared is 34.78.” (So much for CEO equity-based guilt.) Generalizable formula: Ct = a3.4 (sqrt)S. [Ct is total CEO compensation, a is an industry constant, and S is an industry-accepted measure of size: sales, assets, or capital.] Related PhD.
Burstein, Daniel, 1988, "Sun Rise," Business Month, US, Oct., 132(3):65-68. From his 1988 book. The US was already declining and had become a debtor nation. The Japanese economy was surging and it had become a major creditor nation. The world-wide rise of industrial Japan was by way of their trading companies. Firms there were cash-rich and were investing in further technology applications and commercialization. The human genome remained a frontier for scientists – but mapping it will cost billions. So will space-based pharmaceutical manufacturing. Japan will have the financing. The US will be – ambivalent. The American imperialism included responsibility, trust, and intervention – which will be avoided by Japan. The Japanese system was being copied by other Asian countries. Could the latent Japanese imperial thrust be far behind? Ah so. Htr Mn serials hard. # Misc. Pop.
Butterfield, D. Anthony; and George F. Farris, 1974, “The Likert Organizational Profile: Methodological analysis and test of System 4 theory in Brazil,” Journal of Applied Psychology, American Psychological Assn., Feb., 59(1):15-23. Administered 20-item Likert Organizational Profile (LOP) twice to 256 employees in 13 Brazilian development banks. Factor analyses did not yield the 6 dimensions predicted by Likert's theory and factors were only partially consistent over time and for different hierarchical levels. LOP scores were unrelated to objective measures of bank effectiveness, but were positively related to employee satisfaction. The theory of management systems measured by the LOP was only partially supported. See Farris April 1969. Refu. PJ. A.
Capelle, Ron, 1999, “Management Gaps Can Prove Lethal,” The Globe and Mail, Toronto, ON, Canada, Nov. 15. An interview of Ron Capelle by a staff writer on requisite organization design and the danger of gaps left in the hierarchical structure. “Compression is a waste of money. Gaps, on the other hand, can kill you.” Capelle cited Nick Leeson, the rogue trader at Barings Bank, who bankrupted the organization. Nearly half of all manager-employee relationships are sub-optimal. D. Pop.
Capelle, Ronald G., 2001, "Insurers of all sizes can benefit from the simple principle of organizing their operations according to employee skills and abilities," Canadian Insurance, Statistical 2001, Stone & Cox, Toronto, ON., Can., May, 106(5):41-49. [In section: By Design] Compression occurs in 26% of manager-direct report relationships. Organization design is a powerful method for executives and managers to improve performance, productivity—and profits. [Ceased pub. 2010.] NYPL SIBL JBM 94-1091 v. 106 (2001). # D. Pro.
Carraher, Shawn M., M. Ronald Buckley, and Charles E. Carraher, 2002, “Cognitive complexity with employees from entrepreneurial financial information services organizations and education institutions: An extension and replication looking at pay, benefits, and leadership,” Academy of Strategic Management Journal, The DreamCatchers Group, Cullowhee, NC, US, 1(1):43-56. The present study replicated and extended the work of Carraher and Buckley (1996) by testing whether mean group differences in cognitive complexity could influence the observed dimensionality of other types of self-report instruments previously linked to cognitive complexity. It was found that mean group differences in cognitive complexity could account for the observed differences in the number of dimensions with which individuals perceive of the LPC scale (Feidler 1976) [Least Preferred Coworker] and the PSQ (Heneman 1985) [Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire]. But, surprisingly, they could not account for the variations in the dimensionality of the ATBS (Hart 1996) [Attitudes Towards Benefits Scale]. Financial services. Cited Jaques 1961; Streufert 1997; Vecchio 1979; Desmarais & Sackett 1993; Evans & Dermer 1974; Chowdhury & Geringer 2001. Clio since 2002. Rp. PJ.
Carraher, Shawn M., 2003, “Felt Fair Pay, Democracy, and Leadership within Cross-cultural Entrepreneurial Organizations,” Academy of Management, 2003 Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Tuesday, August 5. Program Session #820: Compensation and Incentives. Sponsor: MH. Facilitator: Angela K. Miles; Old Dominion U. Carolyn Dexter Award Nominee. Examined a portion of Jaques' theory of equitable payment, using 6 cross-cultural samples containing 834 financial information services managers and entrepreneurs employed in entrepreneurial organizations in the U.S., Germany, England, Colombia, Japan, and South Korea. Results supported Jaques' proposition about who would be satisfied with their pay level and who not. It was able to correctly predict in over 80% of the cases. Leadership and management levels are important to the relationship between income and pay satisfaction as are differences across democratic republics. FFP:HierLvl. At Cameron. Abstract seen.
Carson, Neill, 1992, “Making Sure Your Bank’s Work Teams Are Accountable,” American Banker, August 19, 1992. Carson was director of Houston office of Harding Consulting Group. On the FLM and the team. Banks tend to be horizontal and unclear on accountability. D. Pro.
Charan, Ram, Stephen Drotter, and James Noel, 2001, The Leadership Pipeline: How to Build the Leadership Powered Company, Jossey-Bass/Wiley, San Francisco, CA/New York, NY, 248 p. (2nd edn., 2011, 325 p.) They identified six transitions in the growth pipeline, thus seven levels of leadership and management. Focused on how the leadership requirements change at each level and on the needed skills and work values to perform the work at each level. Noted Walter Mahler (q.v.) described the managerial levels in 1973 as the “career crossroads model.” They corresponded closely to Wilfred Brown’s (1960) strata without gaps or overlaps but with a bit of confusion (see Mahler 1975). Managerial training for three major transitions began at the General Electric’s Crotonville campus in 1984. This was talent development for bench strength. (See Preface, Ch. 10, and Ch. 8.) Later GE also used other models. One Amazon commentator complained they messed up the descriptions of “work at each Level of Complexity per Jaques, van Clieaf, Billis, and Stamp.” (None of whom are in the Index.) (Van Clieaf met Mahler and GE managers and says this book’s descriptions of GE’s work levels are off by one or two levels.) Authors’ clients: GE, Marriott, Novartis, CIGNA, Citibank, Westpac, BHP, Chase Manhattan [JPMorganChase], Philip Morris, Goodyear, Anheuser-Busch, Masterlock, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Mass, and Burlington Northern. See also websites for Avon Cosmetics (Andrea Jung, GE Board), Sun Microsystems (Scott McNealy, GE Board), and Goldman Sachs (Steve Kerr, GE CLO Crotonville). See Tichy 1996. See Milkovich and Newman 1993. CUNY Baruch HD 57.7 .C474 2001. NYPL SIBL JBE 01-594. Rp. Bk.
Christensen, Clayton M,. Stephen P. Kaufman, and Willy C. Shih, 2008, “Innovation Killers, how financial tools destroy your cabacity to do new things,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, January 2008, page 98-105. Financial tools, such as NPV, DCF, and EPS, diminish and devalue innovation. Without innovation the firm will haveno future. A static comparison with no change ignores the innovations that will be made by the competition. They will always eat away the firm’s base. Lack of innovation always results in a future loss. See Dearden in 1960s in HBR. MS. Pro.
Clayton, Matthew C., Jay C. Hartzell, and Joshua Rosenberg, 2005, “The Impact of CEO Turnover on Equity Volatility,” Journal of Business, U. Chicago Press, Sep2005, 78(5):1779-1808. This study investigates the effect on stock-price volatility of a significant event in the life of the firm, a change in its CEO. We find significant, long-lived (over 1 year) increases in volatility (10%-24%). These increases are larger after forced departures and after outside successions following voluntary departures. This volatility calms down over time as two sources of uncertainty are resolved: possible changes in the firm's strategy and doubt about the successor CEO's ability. At Rutgers U, NJ; U. TX., Austin; Federal Reserve Bank of NY. # MS. PJ. A.
Colman, Robert, 2005, “The New World of Risk,” CMA Management, Hamilton, ON, CA, Nov 2005, 79(7):36-41, (4 pages). Bob McGlashan, CMA, is v.p., chief risk officer (CRO), of Bank of Montreal (BMO) Financial Group and is on the front line of this new world of risk. He is out front on protecting the reputation of the bank and its requisite organization. D. Pro.
Commander, Simon, Rupert Harrison, Naercio Menezes-Filho, 2011, “ICT and Productivity in Developing Countries: New Firm-Level Evidence from Brazil and India,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, EBSCOhost EJS, Harvard & MIT, US, May 2011, 93(2):528-541. Used a unique new data set on manufacturing firms in Brazil and India to estimate production functions, augmented by information and communications technology (ICT). Found a strong positive association between ICT capital and productivity in both countries that was robust to several different specification tests. Found that poorer infrastructure quality and labor market policy are associated with lower levels of ICT adoption, while poorer infrastructure was also associated with lower returns to investment. Information technology. At European Bank for Recon. and Devel. & IE Business School, Madrid; Univ. College London; INSPER & Univ. São Paulo. # Misc. PJ. A.
Conaty, Bill, and Ram Charan, 2010, The Talent Masters: why smart leaders put people before numbers, Crown Business, NY, NY, US, 320 p. Calls it 'The Talent Pipeline:' No talent, no numbers. Described leadership development systems at General Electric, Novartis, Hindu Unilever, Barclay's Bank, plus P&G, UniCredit, and Aligent Technologies. No mention of Mahler, Jaques, Ted LeVino, Deming, Six Sigma, levels, or discretion. Wanted: leaders not managers. Connaty was at GE for 40 years; joined the boards of Bryant U. and HR at Cornell U. Not in Clio. Mid-Manh & SIBL Non-Fic 658.4092 C. Baruch HD57.7 .C6536 2010. MS. Bk.
Das, T. K., 1984, The Subjective Side of Strategic Planning: A Study of Future Time Perspective and Planning Milieu (Decision Making, Banking, Top Management), Ph.D., dissertation in Business Administration, University of California, Los Angeles, 396 pages. UMI AAT 8428503. DAI-A 45/09, p. 2927, Mar 1985. Published as: The Subjective Side of Strategy Making: Future Orientations and Perceptions of Executives, 1986, Praeger, New York, NY. Tushar Kanti Das discussed Jaques’ theory in the literature review. A study of 269 executives in two large US commercial banks. His study focused on the future time perspectives of rival internal strategy makers in what Das termed the “silent politics of time.” Their mean (2.411) was closer to the “near” future than the “distant” future on his 1-4 scale. Shows why so much ‘long-range planning’ is really more short-range than anyone cares to admit. Results may indicate independent support for Jaques’ time horizon and time-span of discretion concepts but they focused mainly on exploring Thomas Cottle’s instrument (see El Sawy 1983 related PhD). The psychological concepts of ‘future time orientation’ and ‘future time perspective’ are NOT ‘time-span of discretion.’ (See Goodman 1966 Ph.D. for similar confusion.) He has since written many articles on Jaques’ theory. Currently teaches at CUNY, Baruch College, in Manhattan, 2013. Related PhD. A.
Das, T. K., 2001, “Training for Changing Managerial Role Behavior: Experience in a Developing Country,” Journal of Management Development, 20(7):579-603. [Reviewed and summarized as “Challenging Roles at the State Bank of India” in Training & Management Development Methods, 2003, 17(1):9.13-9.15.] [Reviewed and summarized as “Challenging Roles at the State Bank of India” in Training Strategies for Tomorrow, 2002, 16(2):4-6.] The article dealt with the design of the training programme and experience with it while implementing an overall organizational transformation with the objective to re-build the bank so it could successfully carry out an expansion of its branch network and business. The design demanded a new managerial outlook, new role behavior, and new practices. Cited Das 1994, 1996. Jaques not cited; Charan 2001 not cited; Dayal & Sharma 1971 not cited. # MS. PJ.
Davidson, William H., 1986, “A Comparative Analysis of Corporate Capital Structure in the United States and Japan,” chapter 11 (p. 133-150) in Tung, Rosalie L., ed., 1986, Strategic Management in the United States and Japan: a comparative analysis, Ballinger Pub. Co., Cambridge, MA, 177 p. Rates of return in Japan are substantially lower than in the U.S. But the cost of capital is also lower in Japan. This is due to the higher debt utilization in Japan. A majority of debt on Japanese balance sheets is due to bank borrowings (86.4 % in 1981), not corporate debentures. These practices were partly due to regulations and partly to a philosophy that profits must be made from their own businesses. The debt-to-equity ratio is much higher in Japan and the current ratio is much lower. Lastly, Japanese asset ratio turnover is much lower, 1.10 versus 1.45. This was due to the greater efficiency of Japanese firms. In the end, Japanese firms can operate with lower rates of return and lower margins, and can pursue long-term, capital-intensive strategies not available to their U.S. competitors. This means the capital market structure gives a powerful advantage. [Japanese debt also means the firm’s managers are accountable to bank managers with long-standing relationships. This means, when there is trouble, there is a ladder, a hierarchy, to go up inside the bank. When the source of funds is the market, there is no manager, only brokers, money managers (at S3), or the public. Since the first oil crisis Japanese firms have tended to seek some external funds in the capital market, some overseas.] City/Cohen HD30.28 .S7324 1986; Offsite - Hum JLE 86-3060 (HSSL). At USC. Misc. Ch.
Dayal, Ishwar, and Baldev R. Sharma, 1971, Strike of Supervisory Staff in the State Bank of India (SBI), Progressive Corporation, Bombay, India. IIM Ahmedabad. An independent investigation of a 17-day strike of supervisory staff in June 1969. What happened to cause it? Resentments even animosity dated back to the days of the Imperial Bank backed by “feelings of injustice, insult, and all other ignominies.” What has been done to resolve the issues? Cited in Virmani and Guptan 1991. Cited Blauner & Dayal. See comments in Dayal 1977. SIBL Offsite JLD 72-2054. Rp. Bk.
Dayal, Ishwar, 1977 (© 1976), Change in Work Organisation: some experiences of renewal in social systems, Concept Pub. Co., Delhi, India, 166 pages. Case. Most of this book draws on Jaques’ and Brown’s experience at Glacier Metal on roles, prescribed and discretionary elements of tasks, and the total company system, which Dayal called Role Analysis Technique (R.A.T.). Describes three consulting interventions to reorganize the Centre for the Study of Administration (CSA), the State Bank of India (See Dayal and Sharma 1971), and KP Engineering (Chapter 5 is his 1968 JABS article, “Operation KPE: Developing a New Organization.”) These insights are combined with Kahn and Rosenthal 1964, Organisational Stress (see ftnt. p. 136). Clio Lehman Lib. HD31 .D335. Rp. Bk.
Dearden, John, 1971, “What’s Wrong With Financial Control Systems,” European Business, S.E.E.D., Paris, France, Summer 1971, 30 or 29:27-35. In English. Many firms evaluate managers’ performances on their annual profit budget. Many times the one-year framework is too short (like MBO) or the manager makes decisions that can not be measured by financial performance. It also overlooks the initial conditions. In addition, the delegation system of the firm - tight or loose - is the second key to a modern financial control system. (The worst is in the middle.) Cited Jaques by name and TSD: 1966. See Froissart 1971. # Rp. PJ. *****
de Juan, Aristobulo, 2003, "From Good Bankers to Bad Bankers: Ineffective supervision and management deterioration as major elements in banking crises," Journal of International Banking Regulation, Palgrave Macmillan Ltd., (Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC; Institute of Advanced Legal Studies), Colchester, Essex, UK, Mar2003, 4(3):237-246. ISSN: 14654830. This paper stresses the role, of bank management as a major element in all banking crises. Even when the crisis has its roots in macroeconomic conditions or in unexpected changes in government economic policy, and not initially in poor management, good bankers, when in trouble, often become bad bankers through a series of deteriorating attitudes. The paper analyses the causes and consequences of the mechanisms at work and presents the remedies which can be applied to stop and reverse the deterioration of financial institutions of systems in distress. (No footnotes.) Cited in Bassarab 2010 PhD. # Misc. PJ.
Dive, Brian, 2009, “Why do banks continue to waste talent?” Industrial and Commercial Training, Emerald Group Pub. Ltd, UK, 41(1):15-19. The waste of human effort and the waste of inputs are also a waste of money and profits. Despite the popular belief, banks are not short of talent - they waste it. Accountability was a key to effective leadership and to the efficient management of talent. # Rp. Pro.
Donaldson, Lex, 1990, "The Ethereal Hand: Organizational Economics and Management Theory," Academy of Management Review, US, Jul1990, 15(3):369-381. 13p. ISSN: 03637425. DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1990.4308806. Organizational economics (OE), as a newer theory, has the potential to make a constructive contribution to management theory. Nevertheless, there are several inherent problems regarding its narrow model of human motivation and behavior, its negative moral characterization of managers, and its methodological individualist bias. One solution is to embrace the positive approach of the original economic formulations. The potentialities and pitfalls of OE are illustrated by reference to matrix organization structures, vertical dis-integration in insurance organizations, and corporate governance. Jaques not cited. Cited in Le Breton-Miller et al 2011. At UNSW, AU. # Refu. PJ. A.
Dore, Ronald, 1983, "Goodwill and the Spirit of Market Capitalism," British Journal of Sociology, London School of Economics, Wiley-Blackwell, UK, Dec83, 34(4):459-482. The Hobhouse Memorial Lecture. ISSN: 00071315. (Reprinted as chapter 20 (p. 90-99) in Okimoto, Daniel I., and Thomas P. Rohlen, eds., 1988, Inside the Japanese System: readings on contemporary society and political economy, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 286 p.) Focused on obligated relational contracting in Japanese business. Consumer goods markets are highly competitive in Japan, but trade in intermediates, by contrast, is for the most part conducted within long-term trading relations in which goodwill give-and-take is expected to temper the pursuit of self-interest. These relations in Japan are more common in Western economies than textbooks usually recognize. The growth of relational contracting in labour markets especially is, indeed, at the root of the rigidities supposedly responsible for contemporary stagflation. The Japanese economy more than adequately compensates for the loss of allocative efficiency by achieving high levels of other kinds of efficiency. Relational contracts are just a way of trading off the short term loss involved in sacrificing a price advantage, against the insurance. As for relational contracting between enterprises, there are three things to be said. First, the relative security of such relations encourages investment in supplying firms. Second, the relationships of trust and mutual dependency make for a rapid flow of information. Third, a by-product of the system is a general emphasis on quality. (Traditional economists failed to anticipate the rise of the Asian tigers – or to explain their rise afterward.) Jaques and Fox not cited. Cited Leibenstein 1976. See Hopper 1982; Takamiya 1983; Tsurumi, R. R., 1982. Clio Lehman Liby Resvs HC462.9 .I587 1988. # MS. PJ. A.
Dublin, Louis I., and Alfred J. Lotka, 1930, The Money Value of a Man, Ronald Press, New York, NY, 264 p. (Rev. edn. 1946). This was for insurance to show the life-cycle of income by occupation. An undated chart of the age-income curves was on p. 64: “Annual earnings according to age for eight occupational classes: engineers (at the top), /\, lawyers, professional, clerical, skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled.” (Second from the top was missing: doctors? U.S. data was from the 1920s? Insurance applications as source?) This was not the same as Maturation Curves, but it sure looks a lot like ‘em! Very early. Chart copied in M.M.G. Fase 1970 on age-income profiles (p. 3, not herein) [Age-Wage Profile] [NYPL Schw D20-1562]. MS. Bk.
Ebersole, Jon Michael, 2009, Predicting Fund Manager Integrity and Profitability -- A Theoretical Analysis with First Steps Towards an Empirically based Assessment, D.O., Business Dissertations, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, 175 p. Unpublished. The goal of this dissertation was to test whether assessment scores measuring socio-emotional maturity and ethical judgment ability correlate with the financial returns of fund managers. The basic research questions are: (1) Will fund manager scores in ethical judgment, measured by the Moral Judgment Interview (MJI) or Defining Issues Test (DIT), show a correlation with market returns? (2) Will fund manager scores in emotional maturity, measured in the "Subject-Object Interview" (SOI), show a correlation with market returns? Positive correlation would provide a measure of the link between these assessments of mental processes and effective behavior. Further, if fund manager maturity and ethics scores were found to correlate with profitability the finding could enable an augmentation of existing fund manager recruitment models, influence educational curricula in the finance sector, and raise significant issues for investors. Thirty financial institutions were contacted with a research proposal detailing the above, and all thirty declined to participate. Four banks were contacted with a simplified request for single interviews of a general nature, resulting in five interviews that were scored for their socio-emotional content. The results of the study are: (a) given a fair market, equal conditions and equal qualifications, fund managers with higher levels of socio-emotional maturity and ethical judgment ability will achieve greater profitability; and (b) a model for how this hypothesis could be scientifically tested.
Eccles, Marriner S., 1951, Beckoning Frontiers, Alfred Knopf, NY, NY, 499 p. Ed.: Sidney Hyman. Chair of the Federal Reserve, 1934-1947. Ch. 1: The slums of Glasgow, where his father was born, were created by following Adam Smith and gave fodder to Dickens and Marx. (This was a divided society economically.) Ch. 2: How Eccles thought through the cause of the Great Depression. This is a clear example of Stratum Seven reasoning. Eccles follows one path of possible causation until it peters out, then he follows another serial path. He never ties the paths together as a Stratum Eight thinker would. Eccles, a banker, came to believe that inequality of income was the main cause of the Great Depression. It wiped out the middle class and left it with no way to create demand. This was soon after echoed by Keynes. People want to trust in an economic bargain for all. Cited by Reich 2010 (see p. 57, 71-81). SchwAN (Eccles) (Eccles, M. S., Beckoning frontiers). City & Htr Mn HG2463 .E35 A3. Misc. Bk.
Fetter, Joel, 2002, “The Strategic Use of Individual Employment Agreements: Three Case Studies,” Centre for Employment and Labour Relations Law (CELRL), Working Paper No. 26, December, Melbourne, Vic, Australia, 35 p. The cases examined are: CRA Weipa (p. 4), BHP Iron Ore (p. 12), and Commonwealth Bank (p. 24). An assessment of the management’s reasons for each offer of staff agreement. CRA wished to rid itself of militant unions; BHP Iron Ore sought workrule and technology flexibility; and Commonwealth Bank was trying to transform itself in the wake of privatization. See Waring Related PhD. See McDonald and Timo 1996. See van Barneveld and Waring 2002. Ru.
Fox, Jonathan, 1988, "Norsk Hydro's new approach takes root," Personnel Management, Blackwell, London, UK, Jan., p. 37-40. First, the fertilizer division had to move to a flatter structure. Then, it could address the employee issues of a fully integrated and harmonized workforce: single union arrangement, training of incumbent employees, creating trust. "We need to know more about the cost of not doing things. The absence of initiative, poor teamwork, under-utilisation of people's talents, quality, safety, are not part of the financial model." (From the Japanese.) Teach. # MS. Pro.
Froud, Julie, Colin Haslam, Sukhdev Johal, and Karel Williams, 2000, "Shareholder value and Financialization: consultancy promises, management moves," Economy and Society, Routledge, London, UK, 29(1):80-110. DOI: 10.1080/030851400360578. 'Shareholder value,' in the pages of the daily financial press, is a loose rhetoric. For business consultants who sell financial metrics and implementation, shareholder value is also a product and a promise - that purposive management action will be rewarded. This paper presents empirics on micro performance and the meso limits to shareholder value. We argue that most corporate managements cannot easily deliver what consultants promise and the capital markets demand. The paper ends by taking a broader view of value-based management as part of a process of financialization. If the results are contradictory and disappointing, a persistent gap between expectations and outcomes can nevertheless drive management behaviours, which change the world. # Misc. PJ.
Furtado, Eugene Pio Hypolito, 1985, Changes in Senior Management and Their Effects on Stockholder Value, Ph.D., The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, US, 156 p. DAI-A 46/10, p. 3115, Apr 1986. # 8527970. Unpublished. This research examined the impact on stockholder value following an announcement of a change in senior management. Appointments, restructures, dismissals, and resignation-under-pressure are considered changes initiated by or the prime responsibility of the Board of Directors. Retirements, death, and resignations other than under pressure, are considered changes initiated by Senior Managers. In almost every case - including death - the removal of a manager was viewed by the stock market as a positive. (Was this a bias?) There was a negative impact on share value when the firm experienced a flight/loss of human capital. See Furtado & Karan 1990. [Mispelt as Turtado.] Abs # Related PhD.
Gray, Judy H., and Iain L. Densten, 2005, "Towards an Integrative Model of Organizational Culture and Knowledge Management," International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 9(2):594-603. ISSN 1440-5377. Proposed the integration of The Competing Values Framework (Quinn 1984; 1988) with Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) knowledge creation and conversion model. The resulting Organizational Knowledge Management Model should further understanding of the social and organizational cultural processes. usq.edu.au Cited Boal and Whitehead 1992; Denison, Hooijberg and Quinn 1995; Kakabadse et al 2001; Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka et al 2002, 2003, 2004; Quinn 1984, 1988, 2003. # Rp. PJ.
Guimón, José, 2005, “Intellectual Capital Reporting and Credit Risk Analysis,” Journal of Intellectual Capital, JIC, Emerald, MCB U. Press, Bradford, UK, 6(1):28-45. Guimon. On European Union markets and firms. Current accounting methods focus on hard assets and ignore intangibles. Found a significant gap between the perceived potential impact of IC reports in credit risk analysis for loans and their real impact. Proposed a classification of the barriers in the market for corporate information. Right now, firm reports use varied methods to determine IC which makes interpretation difficult. Two case studies. Jaques not cited. Cited Sveiby 2000/ 1997 (bk). See Swart 2006. CUNY Bklyn Perls HD53 .J675. Clio. # Misc. PJ.
Hackman, Katerina, 2005, "Providing customers with the ‘right help’: Implementing financial services reform in Insurance Australia Group," Journal of Change Management, Routledge, UK, Sept., 5(3):345-355. DOI:10.1080/14697010500257041. A challenge in implementing new processes for frontline staff is skilling them to handle every situation that customers might present. This situation is more difficult when there can be penalties for inappropriate interactions as with the Financial Services Reform (FSR) requirements in Australia. This paper describes how the FSR changes were implemented for frontline staff in Insurance Australia Group (IAG) using the ‘right help’ program. A framework for developing and implementing the change plan was presented. Details of the change activities are provided together with an assessment of the success of the change program during the implementation starting mid-2003 and 18 months later in January 2005. This case study highlights the importance of considering history, context and process linking to clear performance outcomes when designing appropriate change interventions and the importance of using activities to engage people in the change, to explain the new behaviours and to institutionalize the change with measures to assess progress and success. [The CEO/MD of this firm was applying Jaques.] Cited by Bennet al 2007 (re IAG). Jaques not cited. Cited Stace & Dunphy 1994. Clio. # Rp. PJ.
Hayes, Robert H., and Steven C. Wheelwright, 1984, Restoring our Competitive Edge: Competing through Manufacturing, John Wiley, New York, NY, 427 p. ROI, as singled out by Dearden, is the culprit behind the MBA-lead decline in US manufacturing. ROI leads to decisions that do not reinvest in technology. Time frames are weighted toward the present. Financial institutions dominate and are separated from manufacturing organizations which create an artificial distinction between capital outlays and operating costs. These ‘professional managers’ have systematically chosen self-defeating strategies. Cited by Clegg 1990:197, :198; p. 11-13. Baruch, Hunter Mn, Clio Offsite HD9725 .H39 1984. MS. Bk.
Haynes, Ray M., 1990, “The ATM at Age Twenty: A Productivity Paradox,” National Productivity Review, [continued by Journal of Organizational Excellence since 2000], New York, NY, Summer 1990, 9(3):273-290. In 1969 tellers were estimated to cost $1.15 per transaction. ATMs were promoted by claiming only $.07 cost per transaction. A huge difference. But 20 years on the ATMs were actually costing $.52 per transaction. Meanwhile, improvements at the windows had greatly reduced the cost of tellers. The big winners were the customers who got 24/7 access, and the industry overall saved money per. The Taylorist song to replace “costly” employees with “efficient” machines was still heard. (A better measure was the number of transactions per customer per week. By 1990 Cal. banks were returning to ‘personalization’ with extended teller hours.) # Misc. PJ.
Ho, Karen Zouwen, 2009, Liquidated – an ethnography of Wall Street, Duke U. Press, Durham, NC, 374 p. Anthropology goes to Wall Street. Her access and immersion was by working as a consultant inside Wall Street firms. With the rise of mergers and takeovers, the claim of shareholder control rose to prominence and it became a zero-sum game for all the other stakeholders. Investment bankers imposed dominant regimes of restructuring and deal-making on corporations and thus engendered financial market unsustainability and crisis. To get at the wealth already in the American corporation, one merely has to take it apart, and take a small piece of it as it passes. The recruited I-bankers were 'the best and the brightest.' They lived in a world of high pay-for-performance and high insecurity - and they make everyone else live in it too. I-bankers espoused 'employee liquidity' for themselves and everyone else. Their lack of sympathy and respect extended to their own back-office workers. From her Princeton 2003 Related PhD. Cited in Bassarab 2010 PhD. Jaques not cited. NYPL 115th St Non-Fic 331.7613 H. SIBL Ref *R-SIBL HD8039 .S432 .U68 2009 (read onsite). Clio Barnard & os. CUNY Baruch, Grad Ctr, City HD8039 .S432 U68 2009. Misc. Bk.
Ichniowski, Casey, Thomas A. Kochan, David Levine, Craig Olson, and George Strauss, 1996, “What Works at Work: Overview and Assessment,” Industrial Relations, July 96, 35(3):299-333. (AN 9612044461) It is difficult to measure the effects of managerial practices on organization performance. Some innovative work practices (from lean and/or flexible production) have been adopted by a majority of U.S. businesses. Only a small percentage have yet adopted a full system of such practices. In non-union U.S. shops this is entirely an employer prerogative and has short-run costs. Long-run benefits are less visible to the financial sector and less certain. See Ichniowski 2000 (Intro). # MS. PJ. A.
Ichniowski, Casey, and Kathryn Shaw, 1999, “The Effects of Human Resource Management Systems on Economic Performance: An International Comparison of U.S. and Japanese Plants,” Management Science, May 1999, 45(5):704-721. Data collected from 41 steel production lines in the US and Japan. The Japanese used a common system of HR practices: information sharing, job rotation, employment security, and profit sharing. Japanese lines were significantly more productive than US lines on average. But US manufacturers that adopted the full system of HR practices patterned after the Japanese achieved levels of productivity and quality equal to the Japanese. # MS. PJ. A.
Karesky, Mariana, 2002, Metodo Elliott Jaques, [The Elliott Jaques Method], M.A., thesis in Economics, Specialization in Human Resources Strategy, Universidad de Buenos Aires, AR, 30 de junio 2002. A follow-up study on 20 employees hired using an assessment of current potential capability (CPC) level. Found the managers of 18 concurred, based on actual performance, with the individual’s CPC-projected level of capability. One missed due to confusion by the manager over the level of technical expertise required by the role. In Spanish, subject: “Nivel de predictibilidad de la evaluacion de potencial segun la teoria de Elliott Jaques aplicada a una Empresa de Seguros y Servicios Financieros.” [English: “Degree of predictability of the evaluation of potential according to the theory of Elliott Jaques as applied to an insurance and financial services firm.”] Unpublished. MA on RO.
Karlan, Dean, and Martin Valdivia, 2011, “Teaching Entrepreneurship: Impact of Business Training on Microfinance Clients and Institutions,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, EBSCOhost EJS, Harvard & MIT, US, May, 93(2):510-527. Most academic and development policy discussions about microentrepreneurs focus on credit constraints and assume that subject to those constraints, the entrepreneurs manage their business optimally. Yet the self-employed poor rarely have any formal training in business skills. We measured the marginal impact of adding business training to a Peruvian group lending program for female microentrepreneurs but found little or no evidence of changes in key outcomes such as business revenue, profits, or employment. We nevertheless observed business knowledge improvements and increased client retention rates. At Yale Univ.; Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo. # Misc. PJ. A.
Kelly, James, 2004, “Corporate Leadership: Reflections of a CEO and CEO Advisor,” Long Range Planning, UK, Oct. 2004, 37(5):389–398. This article reviews the careers of five successful CEOs to identify three core ingredients behind the effective management of large corporate groups. From nearly 40 years experience as a CEO and a consultant to CEOs, the author distinguishes - (1) culling standards of performance, (2) values and design that motivate people and (3) appropriate and positive growth paths - as three ingredients most likely to increase the chances of success for corporate leaders. [Lloyds TSB Bank, General Electric, Schroders’ investment bank, Omnicom advertising, Tesco retailing] Analysed two examples of significant CEO failure [a building materials firm and a well-known retailer]. Suggested modifications to the messages of three leading business academics - Alfred Chandler, Henry Mintzberg, and Michael Porter. CEO. Wd & # MS. PJ. A.
Kelly, Susanne, and Mary Ann Allison, 1999, The Complexity Advantage: How the Science of Complexity Can Help Your Business Achieve Peak Performance, BusinessWeek Books, McGraw-Hill, New York, 261 p. The authors used the Santa Fe Institute and Citibank as their starting points. John Reed, CEO of Citibank, funded part of the research there when economists’ forecasts proved inadequate. He also adopted Walter Mahler’s Career Crossroads (from Brown 1960). The authors adapted Deming’s ‘14 Points’ into a new ‘14 Steps’ to embrace complexity, and the 4-part Shewhart cycle. (Citibank was designed. There was nothing random about it. At the end of the book they touch on the announced 1998 merger with Sandy Weil’s Travelers Insurance as if it was the next step in evolution. The ’14 Steps’ at Santa Fe led Deming to his 1993 book and SoPK.) They were unaware of Jaques or Brown or Mahler. Misc. Bk.
Kennedy, Allan A., 2000, The End of Shareholder Value: corporations at the crossroad, Orion Business Books, London, UK; Perseus, Cambridge, MA, US, 237 p. How an obscure academic theory (cash flows, LBOs), discovered by investment bankers in the late 1970s, used new analytical techniques to spot undervalued companies, turn them around, and sell them to new investors at a handsome profit. Instead of valuing a firm by its assets the firm was valued by its expected cash flows. The threat of these corporate raiders inspired thousands of executives and managers to focus on restructuring their enterprises: streamlining operations, cutting costs, and outsourcing non-core activities. But something got lost along the way - the means became the end in the interest of maximizing short-term value to shareholders, companies were mortgaging their futures – managed for the best present value. Cited in Kantabutra & Avery 2011. Clio Bus, CUNY Baruch HD 2741 .K465 2000g. NYPL os JBE 00-2402. Misc. Bk.
Kitching, Jolanda, Johan S. Basson, and Melinde Coetzee, 2006, "Career Path Appreciation: Assessing the Equivalence of Measurement Outcomes For Employees From Diverse Cultural Backgrounds," [draft submitted to SABR,] 31 p. (SA Bar Review ? Behaviour ?) Ensuring that all assessment strategies are culturally unbiased has become a priority in the South African context where historically disadvantaged South Africans (Africans, Coloureds, Indians and women) are climbing the corporate ladder. The career path appreciation (CPA) assessment procedure is being used worldwide to assess individuals’ capabilities and extrapolate their future potential. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CPA procedure is culturally unbiased for the South African context. A non-probability convenience sample of 4 606 participants representing various race and gender groups from the banking, insurance and motor industries was used. It was found that the CPA measurement outcomes are not biased and are, therefore, equivalent for groups of diverse cultural backgrounds in the South African organisational context. Cited Jaques, Rossan, Stamp, Lewis 1993, Ashton, Baker. From Kiching MCom 2005. At U. Pretoria (2); UNISA, SA. # Ru.
Kotorov, Radoslav P., 2002, “Ubiquitous Organization: organizational design for e-CRM,” Business Process Management Journal, MCB UP Ltd., Emerald online, UK, 8(3):218-232. Case study. In 1998 J.P. Morgan’s analysts forecast that the market for e-CRM (customer relationship management) solutions would grow rapidly. Since then more than 700 e-CRM firms have emerged, also causing significant confusion and uncertainty. Corporations are uncertain which e-CRM models and technologies will prove both profitable and sustainable over time. With so many failed e-CRM initiatives some executives wonder whether e-CRM is not simply a hype. Instead, organization-wide initiatives give the CEO a bird’s eye view of what is going on (using both Jaques and Deming). In banking this allows for an interface with the customer that mirrors that CEO’s viewpoint. Efficiency and effectiveness were addressed through differently structured layers in Canadian banks. Cited Jaques 1990; Coase; Chandler 1980; Harter 2001. [Did not cite Deming 1986 yet showed his system as firm’s 3 lower levels in a graph.] With M.F. Smith consulting Morristown, NJ. # Rp. PJ.
Lajoux, Alexandra R., 2005, The Art of M&A Integration, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 450 p. (Hardcover) (1st edn, 1997) Financial capital. Nearly half of today's executives attribute M&A failure to poor integration between merging businesses. Provided updated facts on integration of compensation plans, new FASB and GAAP accounting rules, strategies for merging IT systems and processes, etc. An essential ingredient in successful M&A was Jaques’ MOR-SOR relationship (1996). “... A constant hierarchy of values for employment work: market forces could not produce this consistent value hierarchy” (Jaques FEFE 1982, p. 80). Information Technology. Baruch (1st) HD 2746.5 .L35 1998. Rp. Bk.
Lazonick, William, and Mary O'Sullivan, 1996, "Organization, Finance and International Competition," Industrial & Corporate Change, Oxford U. Press, UK, 1996, 5(1):1-49. doi: 10.1093/icc/5.1.1. This paper shows how the economies of the USA, Germany, and Japan outcompeted the British economy early in this century, and why more recently Japan has been outcompeting the USA and Germany. This paper provides a theory of economic development in which social organization of enterprises, regions, and nations lead to innovation and organizational learning. Fundamental conditions that characterize this are ‘organizational integration’, which provides people with the abilities and incentives to develop and utilize productive resources, and ‘financial commitment’, which provides ongoing control over the money required to develop and utilize productive resources. This paper also suggests that 'imperfections' in financial, labor, and product markets may instead be improvements in social organization that foster technological innovation and economic development. Policy debates over employment and governance systems should focus on building appropriate social organizations rather than on ridding the economy of 'imperfect' markets. At UMass-Lowell; Harvard U., MA, USA. # MS. PJ. A.
Leana, Carrie Renee, 1984, Antecedents and Consequences of Delegation (Decision-Making, Participation, Leadership), PhD, dissertation in Management, University of Houston, TX, 170 p. DAI-A 45/09, p. 2929, Mar 1985. Pubd as 2 articles in 1986, 1987. The research was conducted in 18 branch claims offices of a large insurance company. Results indicated that supervisor perceptions of subordinates, supervisor workload pressure and decision importance were significant predictors of delegation. In addition, subordinate job competence and supervisor-subordinate goal congruence moderated the relationship between delegation and performance. Neither supervisor personality and predispositions nor subordinate job satisfaction and satisfaction with supervision were significantly related to delegation. Examining these issues within the context of delegation rather than participation offers an expanded conceptualization of subordinate involvement in decision making that is useful for researchers as well as for practicing managers. Cited Vroom & Yetton 1973; Ashour & England 1972. Related PhD.
Levenson, Bernard, 1961, “Bureaucratic Succession,” chapter in Etzioni, Amitai, ed., 1961, Complex Organizations, A Sociological Reader, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY, p. 362-375. Focused on anticipatory succession that surrounds high-potentials who everyone expects to soon be promoted, leaving a vacancy. This changed their behavior toward the humanistic (Theory Y). Subordinates ferret out the organization’s criteria for promotion. Used Robert Merton’s paradigm of socially structured deviance (q.v. Jaques). Also, small firms are forced to lengthen their time horizons by their bankers, creditors, and suppliers, who demand succession plans. (Chapter replaced in 1969 second edn. with one by Oscar Grusky.) MS. Ch.
Lopes, A., G. Roodt, and Ricky Mauer, 2001, "The predictive validity of the apil-b in a financial institution," SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, University of South Africa, Johannesberg, SA, Sabinet Online, DOE, 27(1):61-69. ISSN: 02585200.
Abstract in English: The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive validity of the APIL test battery, designed to identify learning potential. A sample of 235 successful job applicants completed the APIL Battery and the scores obtained were compared with a set of job success ratings provided by their direct managers. The predictive validity and the use of this psychometric device were assessed within the broad context of the provisions of the Employment Equity Act (55 of 1998), and the manner in which the information about an employee is to be used.
Resume in Africaans. Die doel van hierdie ondersoek was om die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die APIL-toetsbattery, wat ontwerp is om leerpotensiaal te identifiseer, te evalueer. 'n Steekproef van 235 suksesvolle aansoekers het die APIL-toetsbattery voltooi en die tellings wat sodoende bekom is, is vergelyk met beoordelings van werksukses wat deur hul direkte bestuurders uitgevoer is. Die voorspellingsgeldighede en die gebruik van hierdie psigometriese meetmiddel is binne die breë konteks van die vereistes van die Employment Equity Act (Werkbillikheidswet) (55 van1998) gee evalueer, sowel as die wyse waarop die inligting oor 'n werknemer gebruik behoort te word. Cited Jaques 1976, 1978, 1982, 1989. [Jaques' approach validated this test.] # Rp. PJ.
Lynall, Matthew D., 2009, Cooperation and Opportunism in Venture Capital Financed Companies, PhD, dissertation in Entrepreneurship, Trust, and Time horizons, The University of Western Ontario, Canada, 216 p. DAI-A 70/08, Feb 2010. ISBN: 9780494502983. ProQuest, UMI Dissns Pub, 2009. Num. NR50298. In English. Unpublished. Investigated cooperation and opportunism in interdependent relationships and, in particular, the influence of differing managerial time horizons on the collaborative behavior of interdependent parties. Interdependent relationships were a common aspect of all business organizations. Using survey data collected from CEOs of venture capital financed companies, I found a strong association between perceived alignment and differences in managerial time horizons and cooperative and opportunistic behavior. I also found evidence that perception of negative interdependence mediated the relationship between perceived differences in managerial time horizons and opportunistic behavior. Both parties must match the time horizons of their respective managers to those in the other firm to get cooperation and expertise. Financial services. Cited Das 2004, 2006, 2006; Jaques 1990; Jaques, Bygrave, & Lee 2001; Ghoshal & Moran 1996; Kahn 1964; Kiggundu 1981, 1983 (not herein); Mannix & Lowenstein 1993; Shleifer & Vishny 1990. # PhD on RO.
Marsden, David, 1999, Theory of Employment Systems: micro-foundations of societal diversity, Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York, 298 p. Noted Landy and Farr 1983 called performance measurement the unattainable ‘Holy Grail’ of performance management when reviewing the difficulties. It fell into two categories - the complexity and interdependence of the work. In the end there is “the impossibility of avoiding subjective judgement by management.” Objective measures do not measure all aspects of work equally well. First, they impact work most that can be easily measured. They also bias performance toward the quantifiable and away from the qualitative. (The pensions scandal in Britain in Dec. 1993 where insurance agents got commission payments by selling unsuitable personal pensions to customers. Similar to the US payment schemes that led to the financial meltdown about 15 years later. Learning that quantity without quality is desirable.) “Judgmental” performance measures became the most widely used performance measurement technique in the German auto industry following Japanese-inspired quality considerations in the 1980s (Jürgens et al 1993). “Thus, judgmental criteria are not only an essential element of performance management - they go to the heart of the employment relationship. One might say that management appraisal of performance is the counterpart in performance management to management’s right to decide on task assignments (p. 151).” [Jaques could not have said it so well.] Cited W. B. D. Brown 1962; Landy and Farr 1983 p. 41; and Jürgens et al 1993 on p. 150. Did not cite Deming or Jaques. SIBL JBE00-13. Baruch HF 5549.5 .J6 M375 1999. Rp. Bk. UP. A.
McGrath, Rita Gunther, 1997, "A Real Options Logic for Initiating Technology Positioning Investments," Academy of Management Review, Oct., 22(4):974–996. 23p. DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1997.9711022113. Extended real options theory to technology positioning projects and specified how the relationship between boundary conditions and uncertainty influenced the value of a technology option, as well as the appropriate timing of its exercise. I also take a strategic perspective on uncertainty itself, concluding that option value can be amplified by investments to shift boundaries, ideally in ways that are idiosyncratic to the firm. Cited in Tiwana 2007. # MS. PJ. A.
McNulty, James J., Tony D. Yeh, William S. Schulze, and Michael H. Lubatkin, 2002, "What’s your real cost of capital?" Harvard Business Review, US, Oct. 2002, 80(10):114–121. 8p. Word Count: 5161. ISSN: 00178012. The traditional approach to decide what discount rate to use in estimates of future cash flows is to apply the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). But, corporate executives and investment bankers routinely fudge their CAPM estimates because experience and intuition tell them the model produces inappropriate discount rates. CAPM has three main problems: First, beta measures both a stock's correlation and volatility; second, beta is based on historical data; and third, CAPM rates don't take into account the term of the investment. These factors together result in discount rates that defy common sense. As an alternative the authors developed a forward-looking approach, the market-derived capital pricing model (MCPM) which relies on estimates of future volatility derived from the options market. Using General Electric as an example, the authors give step-by-step instructions for how to calculate discount rates with MCPM. They also offer evidence to show that MCPM's discount rates are more realistic than are CAPM's. Cited in Zellweger 2007. At Chicago Merc; UConn, Storrs, CT. # Misc. Pro.
McRae, Thomas W., 1976, Computers and Accounting, Wiley, 167 p. Described how to design information systems to fit the roles of executives who will use them. Aware of TSD and the time frames needed between financial and operating reports. Cited Dearden and Jaques p. 13, 15, 16. Cited Jaques 1967 (EP 2edn); Dearden 1968 (FinEx). Baruch HF 5657 .M226. (Not in earlier edition 1964 with a different title: Baruch HF5679 .M24.) At U. Bradford. Rp. Bk.
Mitchell, Lawrence E., 2010, “Financialism: A Lecture Delivered at Creighton University School of Law,” Creighton Law Review, Creighton University, Omaha, Neb., Feb2010, 43(2):323-334. (Lecture delivered 9/25/09. (To be republished as “Financialism: A (Very) Brief History,” chapter 3 in Williams, Cynthia, and Peer Zumbansen, eds., e. 2011, The Embedded Firm: Corporate Governance, Labor, and Finance Capitalism, Cambridge U. Press, London, UK; NY, NY, US.) Discussed financialism and its functions in the economic system in the U.S. Explained that financialism is grounded with two dangerous ideas, which provide intellectual support for the shift from capitalism in the private sector, including the banking industry. First was the removal of Adam Smith's moral and social context for the free market. Second was the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which reduced investments to a stock's beta – how far it deviated from the market. The investor is no longer concerned with the firm or its products. Financialism is a system in which the real economy plays a secondary role to the financial economy, in the process stripping future real economic profits for present consumption. Financialism differs fundamentally from capitalism. The US is no longer a capitalist country. Financialism must be destroyed to save capitalism. At GWU Law School. # Misc. PJ.
Mizik, Natalie, and Robert Jacobson, 2003, “Trading Off Between Value Creation and Value Appropriation: The Financial Implications of Shifts in Strategic Emphasis,” Journal of Marketing, AMA, Jan2003, 67(1):63-76. Firms allocate their limited resources between the two processes of creating value (i.e., innovating, producing, and delivering products to the market) and appropriating value (i.e., extracting profits in the marketplace). They find that the stock market reacts favorably when a firm increases its emphasis on value appropriation relative to value creation. This effect is moderated by firm and industry characteristics, in particular, financial performance, the past level of strategic emphasis of the firm, and the technological environment in which the firm operates. These results do not negate value creation capabilities, but rather highlight the importance of isolating mechanisms that enable the firm to appropriate some of the value it has created. (Appropriation is closer to pay-out.) Cited in Mizik 2010. Jaques not cited. (This trade-off is really between two economic approaches. Quality vs quantity. Hamiltonian vs Smith-Taylorism.) MS. PJ. A.
Mizik, Natalie, 2010, “The Theory and Practice of Myopic Management,” Journal of MarketingResearch (JMR), AMA, Aug. 2010, 47(4):594-611. DOI: 10.1509/jmkr.47.4.594. The stock market is unable to properly value marketing and innovation activity in the face of potential for myopic management (cutting marketing and R&D spending to inflate earnings). The financial consequences are a long-term net negative impact on firm value. The real activities of myopic management and not the manipulation of accounting numbers have the greater impact on future financial performance. We discuss the role shareholders, managers, and marketing researchers can play in limiting myopic management practices. (TIME!) Jaques not cited. MS. PJ. A.
Mody, Ashoka, 1989, "Firm Strategies for Costly Engineering Learning," Management Science, INFORMS, US, Apr89, 35(4): 496-512. ISSN: 00251909. We need to think of learning-by-doing as a process of knowledge creation on the shop-floor by specialized teams of engineers engaged in trouble-shooting. Learning has to be viewed as a conscious decision and not a mere by-product of production. For example, cheaper engineering resources, longer time horizons, faster output growth rates, and superior transferability of knowledge from engineers to production workers are responsible for faster learning in Japanese firms compared to US firms. Jaques not cited. Cited Rosen 1972; Polanyi 1966. At World Bank, DC. # MS. PJ. A.
Moller, Stephanie, and Beth A. Rubin, 2008, “The Contours of Stratification in Service-Oriented Economies,” Social Science Research, Elsevier Inc., Dec. 2008, 37(4):1039-1060. Theorists argue that service economies have relatively high inequality. Using the 2002 Current Population Survey, we find that dichotomies exist among Finance, Insurance and Real Estate (FIRE) industries in the service economy that help generate high incomes in upper-echelon occupations, particularly in the knowledge-intensive services and manufacturing industries. These incomes are not available to laborers and service workers. At UNC-Charlotte. # # MS. PJ.
Monden, Yasuhiro, 1985, “Japanese Management Control Systems," Chapter 4 (p. 41-58) in Monden, Yasuhiro, ed., 1985, Innovations in Management: the Japanese corporation, Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Institute of Industrial Engineers, Atlanta, Ga., 251 p. Matsushita has no bank loans: no external debt and an internal capital system. Planning at the divisional level holds the managers accountable. Within each division is a budget system for cost control. See chs. 5 & 6 listed separately. BaruchHD70 .J3 I548 1985. NYPL os JLE 86-3986. # MS. Ch.
Nutt, Paul C., 1989, "Uncertainty and Culture in Bank Loan Decisions," OMEGA, International Journal of Management Science, Elsevier Science, UK, 17(3):297-308. Thirty-eight senior bank officials in the US evaluated eight simulated loans constructed to vary in terms of organizational culture and payback uncertainty. Loan applicants with carefully constructed financials and a profitability track record were more apt to be approved than applicants attempting to serve the needs of key customers. Applicants seeking to meet forecasting demand increases are far more likely to be approved than applicants with innovative ideas. Bank culture was a more important determinant of loan approval and risk assessment than either application uncertainty or the banker's personal decision style. Bankers in an analytic culture were inclined to approve loans. In a consultative or speculative culture, bankers were more apprehensive but would make these same loans. In a charismatic culture, bankers were unsure about the advisability of making the same loans. At Ohio State U. # Refu. PJ.
O'Brien, Jonathan, and Parthiban David, 2010, "Firm growth and type of debt: the paradox of discretion," Industrial & Corporate Change, Oxford UP, UK, Feb2010, 19(1):51-80. 30p. DOI: 10.1093/icc/dtp033. ISSN: 009606491. Japan. According to agency theory, debt is a useful governance mechanism for curbing the tendency of managers to over-invest in firm growth. We distinguish between two types of debt: transactional debt (i.e. public securities such as bonds and commercial paper) conforms to a rules regime, and thus can serve as effective governance mechanisms for limiting agency costs. In contrast, relational debt (i.e. private loans from financial intermediaries) is best characterized as a discretionary regime, and therefore is less effective. Paradoxically, it is the intention of lenders to act optimally in the future that results in this governance breakdown. Our empirical analysis of Japanese firms confirms that the type of debt influences both firm growth and the performance consequences of that growth. At Rensselaer Polytechnic (RPI), Troy, NY, US; American U., DC, US. # Misc. PJ. A.
Olivier, Andrew, 2009, “The Working Journey of Muhammad Yunus: a Jaquesian analysis,” draft version 2, published online, March. Yunus developed micro-lending and stood banking on its head by choosing a model that was the antithesis of globally accepted practices. Bankers traditionally required collateral, annual reviews, limited access to capital, and mistrust. Yunus instead brought back the human traits of mutual trust, accountability, participation, and creativity. He empowered and liberated the poor. His experiment has been replicated around the world. In Tasmania, AU. Ru.
Olivier, Andrew, 2013, Organisational Design: What Your University Forgot to Teach You, XLIBRIS, Sydney, NSW, AU, 256 p. Offered seven principles for enabling effective organisational structures. Taken from case studies of Virgin, Grameen Bank, Ericsson India, The Royal Automobile Association of South Australia, MTN, Executive Outcomes (the first Private Military Company), and a South American resource industry merger. Critical elements were the alignment of processes, roles, accountabilities, and interactions with the business model and strategy, and the involvement of key stakeholders throughout the project. (author: AMG Geno?) This is an important reference for enterprise leaders - on structure. # Rp. Bk.
Pfeffer, Jeffrey, 1995, "Producing sustainable competitive advantage through the effective management of people," Academy of Management Executive, 1995, 9(1): 12p. Achieving competitive success through people involves fundamentally altering how we think about the workforce and the employment relationship. It means achieving success by working with people, not by replacing them or limiting the scope of their activities. It entails seeing the workforce as a source of strategic advantage, not just as a cost to be minimized or avoided. Firms that take this different perspective are often able to successfully outmaneuver and outperform their rivals. [Crush, smash: bankrupt.] At Stanford U., Cal. (Reproduced in AME, Nov. 2005, 19(4):95-106. ISSN: 10795545. DOI: 10.5465/AME.2005.19417910.) Commentary by Toru Hatano: (This is like Japanese mgrl practices.). # MS. PJ.
Pitts, Gordon, 2000, “Disciples preach organizational design,” The Toronto Globe and Mail, Toronto, ON, Canada, October 11, page M1. The Bank of Montreal begins to adopt Jaques’ concepts. Robert Pearce. Capelle survey of hierarchical spine. Positive statistical relationship between organizational design and financial performance. Ontario Hydro, Visa Canada Association. Financial Services. Newspr. *****
Porter, Michael E., 1992, “Capital Disadvantage: America’s Failing Capital Investment System,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA , Sep/Oct92, 70(5):65-82. This crisis has three major symptoms: our short time horizon orientation, ineffective corporate governance, and our higher cost of capital. But our entire capital investment system is failing our firms. (Article contains a one-page sidebar of the contents of an HBSP 1993 edited book on the ‘time horizons’ of capital investments in the U.S.) US companies/ managers have re-invested at a lower rate and a shorter term than their Japanese or German peers. Recent US government proposals reflect these tendencies. The difference between the external funds markets is that the US has ‘fluid’ capital, while these others have ‘dedicated’ capital. (For ‘fluid’ read temporary.) Internally, the funding is secure in Japan and Germany with a solid relationship (based on trust), but held at arms-length in the US with a contact result. The U.S. system includes shareholders, lenders, investment managers, corporate directors, managers, and employees. Each US participant blames the others for not playing fair. These problems are largely self-created. Proposed reforms include employee stock ownership. [With 49% mismatch of employee-to-role and piece-rate incentives what do you expect? A system? Get real.] # MS. Pro.
Pratch, Leslie, 2005, “Value-Added Investing: A Framework for Early Stage Venture Capital Firms,” Journal of Private Equity, Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC, Summer 2005, 8(3):13-29. VCs don’t just supply capital, they also use their expertise and contacts to influence a company's operations, and ensure superior returns. The three functions of the VC are as banker, management consultant, and networker. Described the ways Vesbridge Partners (Boston) added value and reduced risk both for companies in its portfolio and its limited partners who supplied capital. (VCs function at one-to-two stratum above funded venture.) # Rp. PJ.
Raes, Anneloes M. L., Mariëlle G. Heijltjes, Ursula Glunk, and Robert A. Roe, 2011, "The interface of top management team and middle managers: A process model," Academy of Management Review, US, Jan., 36(1):102-126. DOI: 10.5465/AMR.2011.55662566. ISSN: 0363-7425. The article discusses the interaction of top management and middle management in terms of organizational effectiveness, strategic business planning, and the formulation of organizational goals. The interactions between upper and middle management teams are defined in terms of an interface, and a series of propositions is formulated in order to better analyze this interface. Topics addressed include business communication, trust, and role behavior, as well as decision theory and the implementation of performance objectives. At U. St. Gallen; Maastricht U. (3). Cited in Hutzschenreuter et al 2012. Jaques not cited. # Misc. PJ. A.
Rai, Sumita, and Arvind K. Sinha, 2002, "Job Delight: Beyond Job Satisfaction," Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources, New Delhi, India, April, 37(4):554-571. Mere job satisfaction may not be a valid concept in modern times particularly in the context of a skilled work force. Knowledge workers have as much a choice of organisations to work with, as a consumer in the market place has to buy products or services. Satisfaction is something that the worker of today will want to have anyway. Job delight connotes a delight of having expectations surpassed; a delight brought about by augmentation. Survey data were obtained from 261 managers of nationalised banks. Job delight was a better predictor of self-esteem, and of both measures of personal effectiveness. Deming & Jaques not cited, but supported. Cited Rai 2000 Related PhD. Sibl hard os L-11 823, v 37 no. 1-4, 2001-2002. Both at IIT-Kanpur. # MS. PJ.
Reich, Robert, 2010, Aftershock: the next economy and America’s future, Knopf Doubleday, NY, NY, 192 p. This book is about income fairness and equity across the US population since the 1920s. Reich discovered Marriner Eccles (1951), Chair of the Fed, and adding current data, showed a parallel between 1928 and 2007: the top 1% took home 23.5% of the total income in both years. That was the top and financial collapse followed each time. During the era 1954-1975 the top 1% had only about 10% of the total income. That was also the time of the best deal for the social and economic contract. (Most then bought into Adam Smith.) Today, the middle class has no money. When the middle class thinks the game is rigged the contract is completely broken. They stop playing and get angry. “Private wealth applied to ostentatious consumption is perfectly appropriate; applied to the purchase of political power, it becomes diabolic” (p. 100). See Lowrey 2013 NYT. See Osgood file online Sun TV 9-27-10. See Arch Patton 1951-1965; Inge 1958. MS. Bk.
Reichheld, Frederick F., 1993, “Loyalty-Based Management,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, Mar-Apr, 71(2):64-73. Examples included: Entenmann’s, Honda, and State Farm Insurance. Employees are the company to most customers. When they leave, the relationship also goes. To keep customers, build the loyalty of employees. This will also create a future of repeat sales for the firm. Customer loyalty and delivering value must be measured. Over half of defecting customers were satisfied. The measure of satisfaction is not the same as willingness to defect. Creating customer value comes first – before delivering shareholder value. Sales to repeat customers cost far less than finding new customers and is the only way to generate sustainable superior profits. Practices must be changed – redefining target (profitable) customers, changing employment and evaluation policies, and redesigning incentives for the long term. (Supported Deming and Jaques.) At Bain & Co. MS. Pro.
Richards, Roy Martin, Jr., 1978, Individual Risk Preferences as Criteria in Personnel Selection and Placement, PhD, dissertation in Business Administration, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 189 pages. Supervisor: Fremont A. Shull, Jr. UMI AAT 7822342. DAI-A 39/06, p. 3697, Dec 1978. U.Ga./GIL Thesis: LXC16 1978 .R517. Unpublished. [aka: R. Martin Richards, “Martin”] Tested the definition of time-span of discretion (TSD). Focused on two measures/ parameters of risk-handling behavior - the length of time an individual is willing to bear risk (TSD), versus the amount and type of risk. Which is more predictive of success in personal and organizational roles? An original risk preference scoring scheme was developed. The study was conducted on principals of the independent property and liability insurance agencies in the State of Georgia. Time span of discretion (TSD) was found to be the better predictor of success (subject to possible non-response bias). Also, the original risk scoring technique contradicted current risk theory and found no difference in perceived risk in personal versus organizational roles. This is a major piece of validation. Replicated Jaques’ findings at Glacier Metal on the key definition of the size of a role. Has since researched insurance risk and computer science. See Wunsch 1992 Related PhD, Ga. (As of 2000 at Belmont Univ. in Nashville, TN. H: 615-799-7855.) PhD on RO.
Richards, R. Martin, 1981, "Staffing the Risk Management Department," Risk Management, American Society of Insurance Management, NY, NY, December 1981, 28(12):12-16. 5 pgs. Four tools can be helpful in selecting applicants who can be risk managers: the McCelland achievement test, Atkinson discretion cabability index, Friedman-Savage utility model for limits to the individual's appetite for objective-vs-subjective risk, and Time-span of discretion (TSD) to cover intermediate risks. The latter two are especially useful to separate those who should not be risk managers from those who could be. Cited Jaques 1961; McClelland & Watson 1973; Atkinson 1957; Swalm 1966; Friedman & Savage 1948. Clio Lehman liby, bus colln & os Microflm FN 4659. NYPL os *ZAN-T4760 to sibl V. 28. # Rp. PJ.
Richards, R. Martin, 1984, "Meeting the Challenge of Entrepreneurial Risk," Risk Management, American Society of Insurance Management, New York, N.Y., May 1984, 31(5):22-27. 5 pgs. The cover story. Insurance is not gambling and is non-speculative risk. Business risk is speculative - a chance of loss or gain - and the structure of discretion exercised by management can mitigate it. No footnotes. NYPL os *ZAN-T4760 to sibl V. 31. # Rp. PJ.
Robitaille, Patrick, 2009, “Submission to the Productivity Commission Executive Remuneration Inquiry,” Production Commission, Melbourne, VIC, AU, 29th May 2009, 30 p. Using figures from his 2007 MA thesis, he used Jaques’ concepts to show what an appropriate CEO salary should be for the level of work. Formerly, he had worked at SunCorp, a major Australian insurance firm, to examine pay ranges at different work levels. Ru. Rep.
Ross, Alexander, 1992, “The Long View of Leadership,” Canadian Business, CB Media Ltd, Toronto, ON, Canada, May 1992, 21(1):46-51. [Contains insert, see also Jos Wintermans, 1994.] (Also in Canadian Banker, May 1992, [65(5):46-51. Is this a ProQuest typo?] 99(3).) A well done article accurately introducing Jaques’ ideas. The occasion for the Joint Chief’s Citation was Jaques’ 75th birthday: January 18, 1992. See Isaiah Berlin re Churchill’s time horizon. (See Pfeffer and Sutton 2000 book, The Knowing-Doing Gap.) See Kapel, Luthans, and Van Clieaf. Available online at canadiancentre.com or globalro.org . Available at casonhall.com. D. Pro. *****
Schein, Virginia Ellen, 1969, The Relationship Between Accuracy of Subordinate’s Perception of His Supervisor and Job Performance, Ph.D., dissertation in Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, 209 pages. Unpublished. UMI 7016101; DAI-B 31/04, p. 1581, Sep 1970. Adviser: Abraham K. Korman. A subordinate who perceives the supervisor accurately obtains a clear picture of the demands and expectations of the work. Therefore, the subordinate is able to perform the work better. The key is empathy by the subordinate toward the supervisor which involves the “imagined transposing of oneself into the thinking, feeling, and action of another and so structuring the world as he does” (R. F. Dymond 1949 p.127). In another view, “one observes the actions of the other and organizes them into a concept or role. Having located the role of the other, he then performs certain acts which belong to the reciprocal role” (Sarbin, 1954). Earlier research established a “relationship between ability to predict expectations and effectiveness.” This was a mail survey of 1472 insurance agents and their 387 managers. Found accuracy of perception was related positively to both measures of performance. However, this was different on the two subsets: consideration accuracy was related to supervisory ratings and responsibility accuracy was related to productivity. Found productivity relationship was not stronger whether supervisor was “task oriented” or not (i.e. Blake-Mouton). Empathy is people oriented. Self-esteem was positively related to performance but of a low magnitude. (These results support the necessity of the one-stratum distance between subordinate and manager in a Requisite Organization and help explain its increased effectiveness.) Unaware of Jaques. Related PhD.
Sheard, Paul, 1991, “The Economics of Interlocking Shareholding in Japan,” Ricerche Economiche, Facultie Economiche, Universita di Venezia, IT, Aprile-Settembre 1991, 45(2-3):421-448. In English. Two-thirds of the shares of listed Japanese firms are held by domestic firms, and less than a quarter by individuals. This interlocking sharholding provides firms with a form of insurance against risk of financial distress and against takeovers. Mainly, this financial organization of the firm in the first place enhances the capacity of the firm to implement long-term planning and employment contracts. Cited Shleifer and Summers 1988; Shleifer and Vishny 1990; Stiglitz 1985. At ANU, AU. # MS. PJ. A.
Shimada, Haruo, 1985, “The Perceptions and the Reality of Japanese Industrial Relations,” chapter three (p. 42-68) in Thurow, Lester, ed., 1985, The Management Challenge: Japanese Views, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 237 p. The reality is lifetime employment, length-of-service wage system (nenko), and enterprise unionism were built up during the 1950s and 1960s. Even though they are called the “Three Sacred Treasures” of Japanese industrial relations, there is nothing ‘ancient’ or ‘mystic’ or inherited about them. Such stereotypical perceptions have been spread by Ezra Vogel, Pascale and Athos, and Ouchi. Their real purpose was toaccumulate human capital within the firm. He has Age-Wage Profiles (on p. 50-51) from his 1981 book (1974 Related PhD) showing the similarity of Japan to the US and the power of technology and organizational factors. He speculates that enterprise unions with joint consultation (70 percent) and QC circles (more than one million participants) are likely unique to Japan. (He lacked knowledge about their sources.) Not unique is an internal labor market. (Does not mention Glacier Metals or Brown or Jaques but puts the time absolutely dead-on - and at both ends: UK to Japan to US. See Wright 1997 for Moreton/ Glacier/ UK-to-Japan in the late 1960s and see Shimada and MacDuffie 1986 for Japan-to-MIT/ US.) Comments by Thurow. (This is as close to proof as I am likely to get.) [Tatamae vs. honne.] NYPL Hum JLD 85-1640 (HSSL). CUNY Baruch, Grad Ctr, City. NYPL Hum JLD 85-1640 (HSSL). Clio os HD70 .J3 M264 1985. # MS. Ch.
Shleifer, Andrei, and Robert W. Vishny, 2003, “Stock Market Driven Acquisitions,” Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, ScienceDirect online, Amsterdam, NL, Dec. 2003, 70(3):295-311. Both leading explanations for M&A are tossed away - synergy and bad management being replaced by good. Rather, M&A waves are found to be driven by misvaluations in the stock market and the horizon effect. Bubbles allow managers with long time horizons to buy hard assets with their overpriced stock to avoid even worse long-run returns when the correction comes. Managers in target companies with short time horizons take the buyout stock because they are allowed to sell it immediately. The target company also may be overvalued but that doesn’t matter. “Synergy” is simply a story invented by I-bankers and academics. The market can not predict growth rates of firms beyond two years. (NPV and all that.) See Levicki 1983 PhD; Shively PhD 1966; and Williamson (evil discretion!). MS. PJ.
Shostack, G. Lynn, 1985, “For Successful Strategic Thinkers, The Time Is Not Always ‘Now,’” [Marketing Management], American Banker, Feb., 20, 1985, p. 8. (‘Recent’ Fortune article. See Kiechel.) The future market-timing of financial services products to match the time-horizon of the sometimes ornery customers. A clear description of strategic visioning by Jaques. See Carse. MS. Pro. *****
Shostack, G. Lynn, 1987, “Service Positioning Through Structural Change,” Journal of Marketing, Chicago, IL, Jan., 51(1):34-43. Deals with the complexity of the service products offered and the structural changes necessary to produce and deliver them. Close to Jaques. Cited by Joss and Kogan 1995. MS. PJ. A. *****
Simons, Leon, 1972, “Market Economics and Pricing,” Management Decision, MCB UP Ltd., Bradford, UK, Emerald Online, 10(3):204-212. (From chapter in Lock, Dennis, ed., 1972, Guide to Management Techniques, with glossary of management terms, 2nd edn., Gower Press, London, UK; Wiley, NY, NY, 482 p. Adv. Ed.: George Bull.) The problem of pricing non-standard goods. Rejects conventional cost-plus pricing in favor of pricing geared to market levels. The objective of the chief executive shall be assumed to be the maximisation of trading profit on total investment. Trading profit is the profit after deducting bank interest, but before deducting long-term loan interest, taxation and dividends: this is because bank interest is within the control of the chief executive, but these other charges are not. Total investment is the capital made available by the board of directors to the chief executive and includes ordinary shareholders' funds (ordinary share capital and reserves), preference capital and loan capital. CFO of Glacier Metal and lecturer at GIM. (Used at GIM?) [This practice may be dated or country-specific.] Not in: Hunter or SIBL JLM 72-69. Clio Offsite HD31 .G83 1972. At Foulks Lynch. Clio Bus Lib. # Rp. PJ.
Simons, Tony, 2002, "The High Cost of Lost Trust," Harvard Business Review, Sep2002, 80(9):18-19. 2p. Wd Cnt: 1150. ISSN: 0017-8012. Common sense says that managers should deliver on promises and demonstrate the values they preach, but what's the real cost when bosses fail to "walk the talk"? A hotel study shows a stunning, high association between profitability and workers perception of the managers' behavioral integrity. At Cornell U. # MS. Pro.
Singh, Rajiv, 2010, The relationship between strategic thinking and peak performance in branch banking, MBA, thesis, North West University, Vanderbijlpark Campus, SA, 68 p. Supervisor: Prof. J. G. Kotze. The research objective of this study was to determine the relationship between strategic thinking and overall peak performance among Associate Managers. The Stratified Systems Theory (SST), composed by Elliott Jacques (1989) formed the basis of this study. The study constituted a dependant variable – the potential capability score - cognitive process portfolio (CPP) developed by Prinsloo - and four independent performance measurement variables. A literature study indicated strategic thinking led to improved overall performance. But the results of a multivariate statistical analysis suggested no relationship between CPP and overall peak operating performance. Associate Managers must go beyond an operational orientation but must adopt a balanced approach in their strategic insight, operational and risk management, resource management as well as strategy execution. [A.M.s are thus hired in this firm at Stratum 2 or 3 - but accountable for Stratum 4 work.] Cited Jaques 1989 (in text); Jaques & Clement 1991; Prinsloo 1998; King et al 1999, 2001, 2004; Grobler 2005 MA; Paparone & Crupi 2005; Mintzberg 1999, 2005. # Related MA.
Stjernberg, Torbjorn, and Axe Philips, 1993, “Organizational Innovations in a Long-term Perspective: Legitimacy and souls-of-fire as critical factors of change and viability,” Human Relations, New York, NY, Oct 1993, 46(10):1193-1219. doi: 10.1177/001872679304601003 An insurance company is examined in eight studies over a period of 10 years to 20 years as an illustrative and representative case to determine what can be learned from organizational innovations in a long-term perspective. The department manager was a successful soul-of-fire during the change process. He was distanced from the rest of the company because of the continuous defense of the organization's values and culture. Legitimacy (especially top management acceptance) is something that has to be continuously regenerated. The soul-of-fire faced two major dilemmas: 1. the learning dilemma, i.e., the need to balance the efforts for internal learning and development in the unit with diffusion activities and the creation of external legitimacy, and 2. the change dilemma, i.e., the need to balance the direction and control of change with support for employee autonomy and influence. MS. PJ.
Taplin, Ruth, 1995, Decision-making and Japan: a study of corporate Japanese decision-making and its relevance to Western companies, Folkestone, Kent, UK, Sandgate Pub., Japan Library, 156 p. A very interesting book. No, fascinating. On decision-making in the banking and securities industries. The Japanese economy is not going to collapse. Neither are Japanese managers going to go away. Poor index. CUNY Baruch HD 30.23 .T36 1995. Misc. Bk.
Thurow, Lester C., ed., 1985, The Management Challenge: Japanese Views, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, London UK, 237 p. Eleven chapters including Haruo Shimada (debunking the myth of permanent employment), Toshimasa Tsuruta (questioning the importance of industrial policy), Hiroyuki Itami (contrasting the US “quantitative” labor flexibility (firing) with Japan’s “qualitative” (relocation), and contrasting internal financing in the US with external funds in Japan), and Thurow (American labor markets are actually inefficient). Only Shimada’s chapter is separately listed. Baruch, City, Grad Ctr HD 70 .J3 M264 1985 [3: MS. Refu. MS.] ~
Tichy, Noel M., and Ram Charan, 1990, “Citicorp Faces the World: An Interview with John Reed,” Harvard Business Review, US, Nov-Dec 1990, 68(6):134-144. Word Cnt: 7488. ISSN: 00178012. John S. Reed, CEO of Citicorp, has an ambition to create the world's first truly global financial institution. Yet its balance sheet, weakened by $4 billion of loan-loss reserves mainly on Third World debt, constrains its flexibility and growth. While Citicorp's consumer bank is a model of seamless global enterprise, its corporate banking operation in Japan, Europe, and North America is struggling. Strategically, he proposes a radical restructuring of international banking, but will not show a result for 6 or 7 years. Big changes. Strategy. At U. Mich. # MS. Pro.
Tozer, Jeremy, 2012, Leading Through Leaders: Driving Strategy, Execution and Change, Kogan Page, London, UK, 512 p. ISBN-10: 0749466197. ISBN-13: 978-0749466190. Whilst focused on building collective leadership as a strategic capability, the author provides the means for effective individual leadership at all levels. It provides the intellectual firepower to rise above the fog and clutter of operational issues and focus on strategic priorities, with the confidence that junior leaders and their teams are fully engaged and aligned at the tactical level. Leaders at all levels are responsible for ensuring the A.C.E. conditions in which their teams may be successful: developing Ability, creating Clarity, and shaping the Environment. Illustrated with case studies from enterprises like Cisco, MCI, Best Western, ABN AMRO, Rothschild, Macquarie Bank, Philips, Pfizer, Roche, Colgate, and the NHS. (Also, a textbook.) At Henley Business School, AMP, UK. Not in NYC yet. Not seen. Avail. Amazon. Abs # Rp. Bk.
Unterman, Israel, 1974, “American Finance: 3 Views of Strategy,” Journal of General Management, The Administrative Staff College, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon., UK, Spring, 1(3):39-47. The big three U.S. financial strategy models in increasing order of complexity and comprehensiveness are Stanford, AMA, and HBS. However, lacking a CEO with the capacity, all of them will fail. (The financial models are taught to all MBAs and form the Wall Street version of strategy - to serve the share owner. This is the key competing model for SST/RO human capability: stockholders vs. humanware.) Financial services. Baruch, City Coll. At C.W. Post U., NYC, US. Teach. # Alt. PJ.
Van Clieaf, Mark, 2005, “New Liabilities for Compensation Committees,” The Corporate Board, Jan/Feb 2005, 26(150):7-11. Today, Boards are holding CEOs accountable for short-term results (1 year) while paying them as if they were accountable for long-term value creation (10-20+ years). Half of U.S. companies have not disclosed performance measures over one year. Some 60 percent of the top firms have not covered their cost of capital for five years. Many Boards do not have a process for setting differential pay - up to and including the CEO. Delaware judges indicate these Boards may not be meeting their own accountability (duty) to the shareholders for strategy, performance, due care, good faith, and business judgment. The gap is so wide (16x) these Directors could lose their indemnification and D&O insurance. # Rp. Pro.
Waitzer, Edward, 2005, “Paradigm Flaw: Operational oversight detracts from issues on which directors can add value,” National Post, Toronto, ON, Canada, 4 May 2005. Boards should focus on maximizing long-term strategies. Recent, high-profile scandals divert boards from their long-term duties. Chairman of Stikeman Elliott, served as chairman of the Ontario Securities Commission from 1993-96. [Not for News section.] On GlobalRO.org website. # Rp. Pop.
Waitzer, Edward J., and Alfredo Enrione, 2005, “Paradigm flaw in the boardroom: Governance versus management,” International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, London, UK, Dec 2005, 2(4):348-356. The purpose of this paper is to explore a more constructive role for corporate boards - one that would entail directors recognising the operational primacy of management and focusing their attention on the manner in which a corporation can best fulfill its long-term strategy. Paying more attention to nurturing long-term, sustainable value will help differentiate roles and will suggest the need for new metrics and a deeper appreciation by directors of corporate strategy and organisational capacity. At a time when senior management are dedicating disproportionate resources to immediate compliance issues, it is critical that boards take a broad view. Cited Jaques 1996. # Rp. PJ.
Waitzer, Edward J., 2007, “Paradigm Flaws: An Agenda for Corporate Governance Reform,” Banking & Finance Law Review, Scarborough, ONT, CAN, June 2007, 22(3):405-417. The commercial regulatory landscape is overflowing with recent initiatives aimed at improving the governance and accountability of corporations with publicly traded securities. There is no doubt that scandals have helped to expose very serious concerns regarding the efficacy of market discipline and institutional accountability. However, reacting to them by imposing prescriptive rules are more likely to undermine confidence than restore it. Effective corporate governance should involve selecting excellent managers and overseeing their implementation of effective strategies, while ensuring they are accountable to investors - and, increasingly, other stakeholders. It should also focus on organizational culture and values. Remarkably, little effort has been made to justify many of the new governance standards against such principles or the objectives of securities regulation - investor protection and market efficiency. Cited Jaques 1990; Miller & Le Breton-Miller 2005. # Rp. PJ.
Wallach, Michael A., Nathan Kogan, and Daryl J. Bem, 1964, “Diffusion of Responsibility and Level of Risk Taking in Groups,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(3):263-274. When responsibility is spread across a group, its propensity for risk taking increases. (Not on Jaques. This would hold for stockholders and associations. Mutual funds would tend toward risk taking rather than the other way around. Managerial accountability hierarchies therefore function to reduce risk or at least to keep the employees and managers from taking unauthorized risks.) Misc. PJ.
Waterman, Robert H., Jr., 1987, The Renewal Factor, how the best get and keep the competitive edge, Bantam Books, New York, NY, & Toronto, ON, 338 p. Developed the concept of “Directed Autonomy,” where employees are “empowered - encouraged, in fact, - to do things their way. Suggestions are actively sought. But all this takes place in a context of direction.” This is similar to Jaques’ discretion within limits. See p. 75-80, 86-94. This was largely based on Deming. See Sanwa Bank example from Japan in 1969 and Skylab “sit-down” strike. Managers must create a “solution space.” Other authors have called this “responsible autonomy”. Ciba-Geigy adopted this as part of its Vision 2000 reformation in 1993: see C. Kennedy 1993. (Was this Work Levels? D.K.) MS. Bk.
Webb, David Langston, 1999, The Temporal Development of Strategy: Patterns in the U. K. InsuranceIndustry, PhD, thesis in Business Administration, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK, 394 pages. Theses # 50-10654. BLDSC: DX217158. Warwick Lib: res DIS 1999 124. Published as an article: Webb, David, and Andrew Pettigrew, 1999, “The Temporal Development of Strategy: Patterns in the U. K. Insurance Industry,” Organization Science, Focused Issue: Coevolution of Strategy and New Organizational Forms, Informs, Sep.-Oct., 10(5):601-621. Strategy can no longer be conceived through the static language of states or positions (M. Porter 1991) and must be understood as an innovation contest where bureaucratic and inflexible firms will not survive. The empirical results show firms pursuing multiple strategies at any one point in time and altering this multiple strategic agenda over time. Our analysis of nine firms reveals the existence of leaders and laggards in developing a variety of strategic initiatives. The comparative case studies indicate the ‘strategic agility’ of a firm depends both on (1) management having the ability to act and (2) the context in which such action occurs being receptive. See Kriger 1983 PhD. See Boorman 1969. Related PhD.
Webb, David, and Andrew Pettigrew, 1999, “The Temporal Development of Strategy: Patterns in the U. K. Insurance Industry,” Organization Science, Focused Issue: Coevolution of Strategy and New Organizational Forms, Informs, Sep.-Oct., 10(5):601-621. Strategy can no longer be conceived through the static language of states or positions (M. Porter 1991) and must be understood as an innovation contest where bureaucratic and inflexible firms will not survive. The empirical results show firms pursuing multiple strategies at any one point in time and altering this multiple strategic agenda over time. See Webb 1999 Related PhD. See Boorman 1969. MS. PJ. A.
Wooler, Charles Clifford, 1972, “The Effect Of The Computer On Authority And Decision-making Roles In Organisations,” MBA, dissertation in Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of the Witwatersrand (UWITS), Johannesburg, South Africa, 77 pages. In English. NRF Nexus Project 744153. Management Library Thesis HF 5548.2 WOO. Scopus. Unpublished. Used T.T. Paterson's model to measure the impact of the state of computerization on the system of organization of twenty bank branch managers along two critical axes, i.e. authority and decision making. The level of authority was found to be associated with the system of organization of the level of decision making. It was associated mainly with the state of computerization on only to a lesser extent with the system of organization. It was found that the authority of a branch manager tends to be sapiental, rather than structural, when the branch operates under either organistic system. Computerisation had little effect. Related MA.