IT, data management & analytics bibliography
IT-RO_Biblio-subset_2014 --- ver. 1.1 updated 4-15-2014
Information technology / information systems and requisite organization
by: Ken Craddock
This is a subset of Annotated Bibliography items that show a link between Information Technology (IT) and Requisite Organization (RO). This includes all types of IT/IS firms: information technology, information systems (including MIS), and computers. It also includes several other terms: software, hardware, and humanware (not the same as ergonomics).
The main Bibliography was designed to be used by graduate students, business analysts, and security analysts. This subset should be a quick reference for business practitioners and consultants seeking a linkage in the industry. It is in two Alpha lists: Cases and General. Included are some 17 cases. 49 p.
Many journals have devoted entire special issues to the topic and potential impacts of Big Data. A recent one is: Journal of Organization Design, Aarhus U., DK, April, 3(1). This is an 'open journal' and may be freely available to you. Herein are two articles - by Galbraith and by Korhonen. These views on Big Data can be contrasted with Pearson Hunt 1966.
"I don't want my refrigerator talking to me period. I don't want it telling me that I am low on meatballs. I do have a brain."
- Interview of Martha Stewart by Kevin Kelly,
"I Do Have a Brain," Wired, Issue 6.08 | Aug 1998.
Anonymous, 1986, “MANDIT. (Pt.2), Aids to development system, In-House Ltd, 1984-5 : a case study,” Manpower Services Commission, Great Britain, 36 p. Brunel Institute of Organisation and Social Studies (Bioss). Management Development for Information Technology. Management information systems; Data processing. Typo in title. Part of the 1986 MANDIT project report. See MANDIT 1986. Brunel Uxbridge T58.6.M36 VOL. 2/9. Not seen. Rp. Rep.
Collins, A. C., 1983, “A management strategy for information processing. 1––The Segas case,” Long Range Planning, UK, October, 16(5):29-44. First of three articles/ cases. Article presents the Segas Case History and shows how it has tackled the implementation of IT over the past 7 years. Information Technology. Director, Planning and Management Service, South Eastern Gas, Croydon, UK. A case (A). # Rp. PJ. A.
Collins, A. C., 1983, “A management strategy for information processing,” Long Range Planning, UK, December, 16(6):21-28. Second of three. This paper discusses the methodology known as Business Systems Planning for assessing future computer systems requirements. Director for South Eastern Gas, Croydon, U.K. (Q.V.) A case (B). # Rp. PJ. A.
Collins, A. C., 1984, “A management strategy for information processing. 3 -- Management information requirements,” Long Range Planning, UK, February, 17(1):33-42. Third of three. Attempts to structure the basic needs of managers and professional staff for information technology in its wider sense for planning, control and operations. Examines the need for managements to have access to computing facilities. Describes decision support functions for five years ahead as portrayed by Wilfred Brown at Glacier Metal (p. 40). No ftnote. A case (C). # Rp. PJ. A.
Diplock, Cyril, and John de Vulder, 1979, “Better project management through network planning,” Health and Social Service Journal, UK, Centre eight paper: Hospital administration, 22 June 1979, 89(4647)>777, p. B47-B51. Described the Wessex Regional health authority’s use of a computerized PERT to create a project control service. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). This used Parallel reasoning to find the clearest (quickest / cheapest) route among possible paths. Accountability, information flow, and team location were important. The Scottish Health Service used it early and successfully since 1965, but others in NHS have had mixt success with it. Cited Rowbottom et al 1973. A case. # Rp. Rep.
Krafcik, John F., 1988, “Triumph of the Lean Production System,” MIT Sloan Management Review, US, Fall 1988, 30(1):41-52. Based on his 1988 Related Masters thesis at the MIT Sloan School on the NUMMI auto plant in California (technically under joint General Motors-Toyota management). Developed new measurements for quality and productivity. Discovered the plant had achieved world-class quality and productivity rivaling Japanese plants within two years after start-up - using the same old plant, same old equipment, and the same old workers that had failed earlier under GM management. NUMMI used different HR practices, a different structure, a different management structure and philosophy, different training, showed respect for and trusted its workers, etc. Meanwhile GM spent billions on robotics to catch up - and still fell short. When plants moved toward 'leaner' operating policies, performance improved (sign. corr.: 99% on productivity; 95 % on quality) while increasing product mix complexity. Japanese parentage mattered. Organization came before automation in determining performance! Part of the MIT auto industry studies. A case. (Unfortunate editing interpolation of the term “lean/buffered” when he wrote “bufferless JIT” or "fragile/robust continuum." See Shimada and MacDuffie 1986/1987 for “humanware” as the name.) (See MacDuffie and Krafcik 1992. See A. Weiss 1984 for a worker-to-engineer ratio that may be in error. See S. Wood 1990 also. See Hampson 1999.) Unaware of RO/SST. In Biz. MS. Pro.
Levy, Frank, and Richard J. Murnane, 1996, “With What Skills Are Computers a Complement?,” The American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundredth and Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, San Francisco, CA, January 5-7, 1996, [Technology, Human Capital, and the Wage Structure.], May 1996, 86(2):258-262. A bank hired college graduates in its custodian unit when computers were installed in the 1980s. Was the job really changed to allow them to do the higher-level problem-solving as management thought? Not so fast. A high quit rate indicated the computer may have created speed-up at the same skill level as before. Alternatively, the computer increased both the trading volume and complexity of the derivatives traded, making the pricing of assets far more complex than the managers thought, and fundamentally changing the job itself. (Used some RO terms.) Supports RO practice. A case. A lovely case. [ADD to PT I case counts.] # MS. PJ. A.
Macdonald, Ian, Catherine Burke, and Karl Stewart, 2006, Systems Leadership: Creating Positive Organizations, Gower, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Abingdon, Oxon, UK, 312 p. eISBN: 9780754683131 ISBN: 9780566087004 Concerned with how people come together to achieve a productive purpose. People have a deep need to belong and to be creative. A positive organization can both fulfill needs and create a worthwhile society. This requires the hard work of leadership. (“The management approach proffered has successfully underpinned Rio Tinto's management system for more than a quarter century. Not necessarily a ‘How To’ book, but full of good management sense backed by conceptual frameworks.”) Only leadership that is aware of Jaques’ and Brown’s theory - and the discipline - has a chance of success. Contents: Nine principles of behavior. The nature of work and organisations. Systems leadership. Making change happen – putting theory into practice. See Billis 2008 US bk rev. Cited in McGill 2007. Clio ebook & CUNY ebook. LC Call: HM791 -- .M33 2006eb. Dewey: 658.4/092. Rp. Bk. CD Cases: Organising Corporate Computing (SCE) (US) – Catherine G. Burke & Daniel L. Smith.
Madhavan, T., and P. S. Thomas, 1993, “Fujitsu (A),” Vikalpa, IIM, Ahmenabad, India, April-June, 18(2):41-55. A case. In 1991 Fujitsu's board met to revise its international strategy in the high-tech and computer industries. This case covers the firm's background, history in Japan, global strategy, and alliances. Its goal was to be recognized worldwide as 'Imagination, Inc.' and earn respect. [Diagnoses to follow.] # MS. PJ.
Madhavan, T., and P. S. Thomas, 1993, “Fujitsu (A) - Diagnoses,” Vikalpa, IIM, Ahmenabad, India, April-June, 18(2):49-59. Diagnoses to the Case by N. Vittal, Dileep Hurry and Masako Imoto, Narendra Murkumbi, Ashok Korwar, and S. Ramachander. Topics include - scenario planning, shadow options, building the information superhighway, guerilla warfare, and the firm’s style. # MS. PJ.
Mathiassen, L., Finn Borum, and J. Strandgaard Pedersen, 1999, “Developing managerial skills in IT organizations - a case study based on action learning,” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Elsevier B.V., ScienceDirect, June, 8(2):209-225. The Chief information officer (CIO) of a Danish financial institution experienced increasing problems with internal recruitment of managers with sufficient and suitable competencies to face the IT challenges. As a consequence, he decided to establish an ambitious in-house training program aimed at developing appropriate managerial skills and attitudes. The paper presents a number of tales about this training program. The paper first describes the training program, its context, the initial design, the process, and the results. The program is then evaluated from different viewpoints: the sponsor and designers, the trainees, and the IT organization. Information Technology. Teach. Misc. PJ.
Pauley, Graeme S., 1994, “Case based reasoning - A catalyst for improvement,” Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, UK, January-February, 103:A17-A20. A case on the development of an IS strategy at Anglesey Aluminium Metal (UK). Information Technology. (See W. Brown papers.) MS. NJ.
Pepitone, James S., 2002, “A Case for Humaneering,” Industrial Engineer, Norcross, GA, US, May 2002, 34(5):39-44. Little has been accomplished to raise the productivity of knowledge and service work. 80% of the US workforce is now engaged in white-collar professions. Production work supports machines. But knowledge work is supported by machines. There is tremendous potential for real financial gain to companies that can tap into productivity improvements in this type of work. Gains will only come through hiring capable knowledge workers. When work is humaneered, the focus is on the human-dependent aspects of the work – and the optimization of this performance. # MS. PJ.
Phillips, Lawrence D., 1982, “Requisite Decision Modelling: A Case Study,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, U.K., April, 33(4):303-311. This case study in decision analysis concerns a company that had to decide between continuing to manufacture an old product that might in the near future by banned by the government or introducing an improved but conventional product that would beat the ban but might lose market share to competing products using microchip technology. A decision tree with three attributes describing the consequences over a ten-year horizon modelled the problem. Implementation on a micro computer facilitated extensive sensitivity analyses, the final round of which were conducted by the Board of Directors. More and more pessimistic assumptions were made until the decision switched from the new to the old product; at that point no Director believed all the assumptions. Thus, agreement was reached about the decision even though the Directors disagreed about the uncertainties. The case illustrates `requisite' rather than optimal decision modelling and shows the essential roles of problem structure and sensitivity analysis. Focus was more to model a manager's understanding of his problem than to model the real world in any objective manner. (Phillips was at Brunel when he wrote this.) Jaques not cited. # Rp. PJ. A.
Ross, Jeanne W., Cynthia M. Beath, and Anne Quaadgras, 2013, "You May Not Need Big Data After All," Harvard Business Review, Dec2013, 91(12):90-98. 8p. Wd Cnt: 4492. ISSN: 0017-8012. Why do companies have so little to show for their investments in big data? The biggest reason is that they aren't doing a good job using the data they already have. The few companies that have adopted evidence-based decision making ensure that all decision makers have firm performance data at their fingertips every day. (7-Eleven Japan vs. 7-Eleven US.) Adopting evidence-based decision making is a big cultural shift. Employees need help learning how to base their decisions on data instead of on instinct. Fortunately, companies that make the shift don't usually go back, and they improve their operations in ways that rivals can't easily replicate. At MIT Sloan; University of Texas, Austin; MIT Sloan. A case. # Rp. Pro.
Thomas, Peter, and Joanna Riddick, 1993, "Organisational Structures, Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Conflict," chapter 6 (p. 147-160, viii) in Easterbrook, Steve M., ed., 1993, CSCW: Cooperation or Conflict, Springer-Verlag, London, UK, 211 p. (CSCW) ISBN 0387197559. [Riddick = Fitzgerald] A case. Conflict was an inherent part of cooperative work. The conflict can be lessened with an understanding of proper organisational structure. The design work in the construction industry was done at different levels for concept, system, or detailed. An awareness of levels of capability would allow the creation of support networks. Cited Jaques 1976, 1989; Brown & Jaques 1965; Stamp 1989; Rowbottom & Billis 1977. Not in CLIO, NYPL. Bklyn Coll. HD66 .C77 1992 [error]. Brunel Liby HD66 .C73. # Rp. Ch.
Wijnberg, Nachoem M., Jan van den Ende, and Onno de Wit, 2002, "Decision Making at Different Levels of the Organization and the Impact of New Information Technology: Two Cases from the Financial Sector," Group and Organization Management, Sage, Sept. 2002, 27(3):408-429. doi: 10.1177/1059601102027003005. Focused on the impact of information technologies on the upstream and downstream flows of information. Systematic management emphasized the vertical, decision-making aspect of management. Scientific management (Taylorism) stressed the increased organization of the workplace (lower, horizontal). Service firms will be more open to the systematic approach than manufacturing firms. Nevertheless, Taylorism failed in the bank that tried it. The chances of success were increased by employing the new technology to enable employees at lower levels of the organization to be more, instead of less, concerned with performance objectives of the firm. Cited in Prakash & Gupta 2008. Jaques not cited. Cited Litterer 1961; Yates 1989. At Erasmus U., Rotterdam, NL. # Refu. PJ.
Addis, T. R. and J. J. Townsend Addis, 1996, "Clarity: built-in and system functions with FAITH examples", Version 3.6.5, May, for Website 1996a. A computerized application of Levels of Abstraction different from Bioss. See Addis 2000.) Rp. Rep.
Addis, T. R. and J. J. Townsend Addis, 1996 , "The Clarity Manual", Version 3.6.5, May, for Web site. (website 1996b. A computerized application of Levels of Abstraction different from Bioss. See Addis 2000.) Rp. Rep.
Addis, T. R., 2000, “Stone Soup: identifying intelligence through construction,” Kybernetes, London, UK, 29(7/8):849-870. [Thomas R. Addis] The Frank H. George Memorial Lecture: 2000. The Peircian trichotomy of inference into Induction, Deduction, and Abduction supports a range of specialization for the different aspects of reasoning. These aspects can be improved through experience leading to the notion of "wisdom" and a practical measure for the anthropomorphism of intelligence. This description of IQ is consistent with the work of Elliott Jaques (Jaques et al., 1978) who proposed that intelligence grows in distinct steps where each step indicates a new ability to abstract. Card sorting, truth tables, evolution, artificial intelligence. Plato, Wittgenstein, Turing, Peirce, Shannon, Terman. (Developed ‘Clarity’, a computerized application of Levels of Abstraction different from Bioss. See Mohamad Shanudin Zakaria, PhD, Reading, 1994. See Addis and Addis 1996 a and 1996 b; Freisen 2011. See Jaques 2002 LBLO.) See Related PhD 1980. # Rp. PJ. A.
Addis, Thomas R., Bart-Floris Visscher, D. Billinge, and D. C. Gooding, 2002, “Socially Sensitive Computing: A Necessary Paradigm Shift for Computer Science,” Grand Challenges in Computer Science, University of York, UK, 19 p. In response to the grand challenge for computer science during a workshop held in Edinburgh in November 2002 we identified an essential problem in computing that has yet to be addressed directly, see Appendix A for UKCRC Grand Challenge criteria (Addis et al., 2004). We show that this problem, originally identified by Wittgenstein circa 1945 (pub. posthumously, revised translation 1966), explains a barrier that prevents people from communicating seamlessly with computer systems. It explains many of the apparently insoluble problems that beset human computer usage such as; context dependency in natural language understanding, the generalisation problem in machine learning/neural networks and effective data retrieval. Although many solutions have been attempted, nobody has yet directly addressed the underlying cause. This cause can be characterised by the notion of the ubiquitous existence of irrational sets that emerge from the fundamental nature of human language and a continually changing knowledge of the world. We suggest two possible solutions. Cited Addis 1980, 2000, 2004. # MS. Rep.
Algie, Jimmy, and William Foster, 1985, “How to Pick Priorities”, Management Today, UK, March, p. 60-61, 123. From their book and program ‘Priority Decision System’ (PDS). PDS allows participants to negotiate through a computer, so they each do not confront the other. It works: contradictions are resolved. Both at Brunel and Bioss. # Rp. Pro.
Algie, Jimmy, 1986, “Part 2, Aids to Development - Unit 3: Management Technology: re-assessing information technology from the manager's point of view,” Brunel Institute of Organisation and Social Studies, 65 p. Management Development for Information Technology. The MANDIT Report, Manpower Services Commission, UK, BL Shelfmark GPB-8384 DSC. Brunel Lib Uxbridge T58.6.M36. See Unit 4 by Algie 1986. See Dale 1986. See MANDIT 1986. Not seen. Rp. Rep.
Allcorn, Seth, 1997, “Parallel virtual organizations: managing and working in the virtual workplace,” Administration and Society, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, Sep 1997, 29(4):412-439. The growing presence in the workplace of computers that are linked together to form intraorganizational networks (intranets), thus enabling unprecedented electronic employee connectedness, contains within it a collision between the traditional hierarchically organized physical workplace and the potentially chaotic virtual workplace. This article describes this new workplace context as a parallel virtual organization (PVO) that possesses its own values and culture independent of its host culture, the traditional bureaucratic hierarchical organization (BHO). The growth of PVOs means that a transitional space must be developed initially between them and their BHO counterparts to enable the eventual merger of the two. Very upbeat about the future. Cited Jaques 1989 as an BHO. At U. Mo., Columbia. # Rp. PJ.
APO Top Management Forum: Human-Centred Management, 1992, Report on APO Top Management Forum: Human-Centred Management, 24th-28th February 1992, Kyoto, Japan, 136 p. Asian Productivity Organization book. Four Japanese CEOs and three top managers/ academics speak on their HR policies and practices: humanware and people-ism. Kao Corp., Japan Productivity Center, Omron Corp., Idemitsu Kosan Co., Kyosera Corp., Kokushikan U., and Hitotsubashi U. Human-Centred Management was NOT top-down stockholder capitalism. Clio BIZ HF5549.2 .A75 T67 1992 MS. Bk.
Arbose, Jules, 1977, “Participation Spins Out Long-Term Gains at Fibre Plant,” International Management, McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, Berkshire, UK, April 1977, 32(4):33-36. Over the prior decade the ICI Gloucester plant had increased productivity 100 percent, gotten rid of time-clocks, hourly pay, gotten guaranteed annual salaries with eight gradings, workers defined their jobs, no redundancies through increased efficiencies, fuller financial info, workers did many tasks formerly carried out by their supervisors. Plant workforce at every level had been reduced 40 percent. The plant had lost money during the past three years. Both union and management were more flexible. There had been a “fundamental change in the purpose of the works committee.” “Everyone here now accepts ... the technically perfect decision is not necessarily the optimum one. The optimum decision is the one that will work because everyone wants it to work.” First, they got rid of the computer for scheduling work. It was inflexible and rigid. Previously, the works committee meetings had focused on washroom and cafeteria issues. The supervisors now resolved shopfloor problems where previously these issues had been kicked up to middle managers. (These changes were attributed to participation. Jaques and Brown not mentioned. But ICI partly adopted SST in the late 1960s.) See Bernard Scott 1997, and Hill 1977 for Jaques interview. MS. PJ.
Argyris, Chris, 1967, "Todays' Problems with Tomorrow's Organizations," Journal of Management Studies, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, UK, Feb. 1967, 4(1):31-55. New organizational forms are needed to complement or replace the traditional pyramidal form. Two causes are the new administrative and information technology to deal with complexity and the new requirements for survival in an increasingly competitive environment. Modern organizations require a great deal of creative planning, useful knowledge about new products and processes, and increased understanding of criteria for effectiveness to meet the challenges of complexity. EJ not cited, but task, time, and matrix were. SIBL B. Altman JBL 94-227. # MS. PJ.
Autor, David H., Frank Levy, and Richard J. Murnane, 2002, “Upstairs, Downstairs: Computers and Skills on Two Floors of a Large Bank,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, NY, US, April 2002, 55(3):432– 447. ISSN: 00197939. Many studies document a positive correlation between workplace computerization and employment of skilled labor in production. Improvements in computer-based technology create incentives to substitute machinery for people in performing tasks that can be fully described by procedural or 'rules-based' logic and hence performed by a computer. This process typically leaves many tasks unaltered, and management plays a key role--at least in the short run--in determining how these tasks are organized into jobs, with significant implications for skill demands. This conceptual framework proves useful. In one department, the tasks not computerized were subdivided into narrow jobs; in the other department, management combined multiple linked tasks to create jobs of greater complexity. The framework may be applicable to many organizations. At MIT; MIT; Harvard. Cited in Autor et al 2003. [Described shifting LoW, but unaware of it.] # MS. PJ. A.
Autor, David H., Frank Levy, and Richard J. Murnane, 2003, "The Skill Content of Recent Technological Change: An Empirical Exploration," Quarterly Journal of Economics, Harvard/ MIT, US, Nov. 2003, 118(4):1279-1333. How computerization alters job skill demands. They (1) substitute for workers in performing cognitive and manual tasks that can be accomplished by following explicit rules; and (2) complements workers in performing nonroutine problem-solving and complex communications tasks. These tasks are imperfect substitutes, our model implies measurable changes in the composition of job tasks. Computerization is associated with reduced labor input of routine manual and cognitive tasks and increased labor input of nonroutine cognitive tasks. This model explains 60 percent of the estimated relative demand shift favoring college labor during 1970 to 1998. Task changes within nominally identical occupations account for almost half of this impact. [CEO. These findings confirm Jaques.] # MS. PJ. A.
Barber, Felix, and Rainer Strack, 2005, “The Surprising Economics of a ‘People Business’,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, June 2005, 83(6):80-90. When people are your most important asset, some standard performance measures and management practices become misleading or irrelevant. This is a danger for any business whose people costs are greater than its capital costs – that is, businesses in most industries: operations with high employee costs, low capital investment, and limited spending on activities (such as R&D) that are aimed at generating future revenue. How do you avoid the trap of relying on capital-oriented metrics, such as return on assets or return on equity. They'll mask weak performance or indicate volatility where it doesn't exist. Replace them with a reformulation of economic profit (such as EVA) but you must still gauge people, not just capital, productivity. Most employees create current value for the firm, but some create future value – such as software development, a new drug, or even building a brand. These are scale sensitive and their performance-based compensation needs to be long-term as well – stock and options as opposed to annual bonuses. People-intensive businesses also call for different management practices and focus. True economic profit can be calculated using a people rather than a capital denominator. Then you need to enhance it operationally; reward it appropriately; and price it advantageously (value created for customers). At BCG in Europe. Teach. # MS. Pro.
Bariff, M. L. and E. J. Lusk, 1977, “Cognitive and Personality Tests for the Design of Management Information Systems,” Management Science, April 1977, 23(8):820-829. Related the cognitive complexity level of operators to the (ergonomic) design of management information systems. Procedures for system modification need to be designed to accommodate both aspects that may block successful implementation. Cited in Venda and Hendrick 1994. Both at Wharton. MS. PJ. A.
Bartel, Ann P., Casey Ichniowski, and Kathryn Shaw, 2003, “'New technology’ and its impact on the jobs of high school educated workers: A look deep inside three manufacturing industries," chapter 5 (p. 155-194) in Appelbaum, Eileen, Annette Bernhardt, and Richard J. Murnane, eds., 2003, Low-Wage America: how employers are reshaping opportunity in the workplace, Russell Sage Foundation, NY, NY, US, 535 p. Income inequality between late 1970s and early 1990s has been largely laid to the use of computers on the job. Skills. But – the use in plants of computer based technology varies widely; plants that use computers have produced significant improvements in productivity and product quality. Computerization resulted often in "up-skilling" of jobs. Computers were doing the routine work of production. The non-routine work required greater skill levels. 'Soft-skills' such as problem-solving were required, but computer skills were not. The base-skills were still required: apprenticeship. New HRM practices helped. Jaques not cited. Cited in Green 2012. Clio Bus HD5724 .L44 2003. # MS. Ch.
Bhide, Amar, 2010, A Call for Judgment, Oxford U. Press, UK & US, 353 p. With the use of computers top executives have become all-knowing beings. Ideology and financial models dictated from above remove judgment by those closer to the customers and markets, and thus our financial institutions have lost touch with reality. Baruch HG181 .B42 2010. MS. Bk. UP. A.
Bhidé, Amar, 2010, “The Judgment Deficit,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, US, Sep2010, 88(9):44-126. Individual judgment and initiative are essential to the success of the modern capitalist economy. In recent times, though, a new form of centralized control has taken root: mechanistic decision making based on top-down statistical models and algorithms. This has been especially true in finance, where risk models have replaced the judgments of thousands of individual bankers and investors, to disastrous effect. The problem with the statistical approach is that it cannot adequately account for the uncertainty inherent in economic decisions or the idiosyncratic nature of human activity. What finance in particular needs is a return to judgment. Computers shine when, like the configuration of pieces on a chess set, the number of possible outcomes is vast -- in fact, this vastness often gives the computer its edge -- but they all conform to well-specified rules. Conversely, human judgment is favored when shielding is difficult, outcomes are ambiguous, and the possibilities are open-ended. Based on book. See Hunt 1966; Woods 1985. At Tufts U., Fletcher, US. # MS. Pro.
Bird, Shawn D., and George M. Kasper, 1995, “Problem formalization techniques for collaborative systems,” IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics, online, Feb., 25(2):231-242. The division of intellectual labor required to solve complex problems demands that those problems be decomposed and distributed among available "laborers." One well-developed notion in shared problem solving is collaboration, the distribution of problem solving activities to group or system members based on their capabilities, including humans and computers. But the type of problems best suited to collaboration and principles for the purposeful design of collaborative systems have not yet been developed. Built on Phillips 1984. # Rp. PJ. A.
Bjørn-Andersen, Niels, and Poul H. Pedersen, 1980, “Computer facilitated changes in the management power structure,” Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier Science Ltd., 5(2):203-216. doi: 10.1016/0361-3682(80)90010-0. Bjorn-Andersen. The study found that the discretion within a job and the possibilities for influencing others are not directly related. The implementation of the computer information system resulted in all functional groups of employees losing discretion, whilst the gatekeepers to the technology gained in influence. An IT and matrix structure (Galbraith 1973) was recommended. Research was conducted in Denmark, Austria, Great Britain, West Germany, and U.S.A. Cited Jaques 1956; G. Bell 1966; Perrow 1967; Scott-Morton 1971. SIBLJLL 85-51 pt. 5-6 (1980/81). # Rp. PJ. A.
Bourgeois, L. J., III, and Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, 1988, “Strategic Decision Processes in High Velocity Environments: Four Cases in the Microcomputer Industry,” Management Science, INFORMS, July, 34(7):816-835. How do executives make strategic decisions in industries where the rate of technological and competitive change is so extreme that market information is often unavailable or obsolete, where strategic windows are opening and shutting quickly? And how is risk of strategic error mitigated? This was a field investigation of four microcomputer firms, where we studied the major decisions of top management teams in high velocity environments. Our results consist of a set of paradoxes which the successful firms resolve and the unsuccessful firms do not. We found an imperative to make major decisions carefully, but to decide quickly; to have a powerful, decisive CEO and a simultaneously powerful top management team; to seek risk and innovation, but to execute a safe, incremental implementation. Despite the apparent paradox, effective firms do all of these simultaneously. Cited by Shenhar 2001. MS. PJ. A.
Bowman, Edward H, 1978, “Strategy, Annual Reports, and Alchemy,” California Management Review, University of California, Berkeley, CA, Spring 1978, 20(3):64-71. A study of annual reports from 162 companies in the computer industry. Successful firms discussed customers and international business more than the medium group, which in turn discussed them more than those firms with low success. The medium firms discussed controlled growth more than either of the other two groups. The surprise was vertical integration and value added which were discussed by the low and high firms but less so by the medium firms. This was a U-shape, indicating high profits could be attained through either low or high integration - but not by mixing them. (See Michael Porter 1980. See Bowman 1974). Refu. Pro.
Brand, Stewart, 1999, The Clock of the Long Now: Time and Responsibility, Phoenix Books, London, UK. This is a computer/ future guy from the MIT Media Lab. The Long Now Foundation (Brand and Friends) is building a 10,000 year clock that will ring once a century. (But why does it still ‘ring’?) This book careens from the profound to the precious and perfectly captures the 1999 moment at the top of the geek boom. A focus on the future brings awareness of ‘responsibility.’ The future speaks ‘responsibility’ to the present. (You tell me, how did he miss Jaques’ hip-to-hip link of time to accountability?) Cited Carse 1986; Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars 1997; Neustadt & May 1986. Great references/ footnotes and short Biblio. Cute revolving clock on each page. Ref’d. by Kriger 2004. NYPL HUM Gen Res JFE 99-8358. MS. Bk.
Bratton, John, 1991, “Japanization at Work: The Case of Engineering Plants in Leeds,” Work, Employment and Society, The British Sociological Association, Sage, London, UK, Sept., 5(3):377-395. Contends against the deskilling and the upskilling arguments regarding new technology (here CNC) and Japanese management techniques. He cited EJ 1961 on discretion, which he calls autonomy, and ends with “computer-controlled-autonomy” (eh?) and/or “circumscribed autonomy” (a nice phrase, that). Overlook the language changes and it is on-the-money. Cited Jaques 1961. See Wright 1997. At Leeds Polytechnic B-School. # Rp. PJ. A.
Brookes, Donald V., 1994, “HR in the '90s: from tacticians to strategists,” HR Focus, American Management Association, 1 September 1994, 71(9):12-13. ISSN: 1059-6038. From the Industrial Revolution until fairly recent times, technology (including information technology) was more important than people in the corporate quest for profits. That balance now is shifting in many organizations where information is a business' most important asset. HR executives face a dilemma: how to deploy a company's human resources - who hold that information - in accordance with corporate strategy. Jaques allows the prediction of employees’ capabilities. D. Pro.
Brown, Carol V., 1999, "Horizontal Mechanisms under Differing IS Organization Contexts," MIS Quarterly, US, Sep. 1999, 23(3):421-454. Horizontal mechanisms are structural overlays (such as roles and groups) and non-structural devices (such as physical colocation) that are designed to facilitate cross-unit collaboration. What top-down mechanisms are being used to promote the coordination of IS activities across corporate/division boundaries? Propositions about how mechanism usage differs under centralized versus federal IS organization contexts are developed. An unexpected finding was that mechanisms for both of these kinds of IS coordination were valued at each case site. The prediction that a formal group mechanism would be perceived as more effective for achieving cross-unit coordination than an integrator role mechanism was not supported. Information Technology. # Misc. PJ.
Bryce, David J., Jeffrey H. Dyer, and Nile W. Hatch, 2011, “Competing Against Free,” Harvard Business Review, June 2011, 89(6):104-111. The "free" business models popularized in the digital world by companies such as Google, Adobe, and Mozilla are spreading to markets in the physical world. Embracing free strategies is not easy for managers at established companies. One obstacle is the profit-center structure, which makes it impossible to consider a product's revenues and costs separately. Another is the cost accounting system, which is not good for identifying the actual expense of additional offerings. To overcome these challenges, managers can push profit responsibility up, push revenue and cost responsibilities down- to separate groups, and step back from the cost accounting system. They may have pricing flexibility. Information Technology. Deming, H. T. Johnson, Jaques – not cited. See W. Brown & Jaques 1964. At Brigham Young U. (3), and U. PA. # MS. Pro.
Cappelli, Peter, 2012, Why Good People Can’t Get Jobs: the skills gap and what companies can do about it, Wharton Digital Press, Philadelphia, PA, US, 104 p. It is a hiring and training gap. It is not a skills gap alone. Correcting this is up to the firms not the prospective employees alone. Cappelli is aware of R.O. One key to a ‘jobless recovery’ is that employers do not know what they are getting with labor but they do know what it costs. Also, by introducing computer sorting into the hiring process the firms by have put in too many criteria and fallen off the quality cliff. That is why they see the issue as a ‘skills gap.’ Mid-Manh 331.114C. MS. Bk.
Carr, Nicholas G., 2003, "IT Doesn't Matter," Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, US, May2003, 81(5):41–49. 9p. Word Count: 5449. ISSN: 0017-8012. Chief executives routinely talk about information technology's strategic value, about how they can use IT to gain a competitive edge. But scarcity, not ubiquity, makes a business resource truly strategic and allows companies to use it for a sustained competitive advantage. IT is the latest in a series of broadly adopted technologies--think of the railroad or the electric generator--that have reshaped industry over the past two centuries. As their availability increased and their costs decreased, they became commodity inputs. From a strategic standpoint, they became invisible; they no longer mattered. That's exactly what's happening to IT. IT should focus on reducing risks, not increasing opportunities. Companies need to pay more attention to ensuring network and data security; manage IT costs more aggressively; IT could easily put you at a cost disadvantage; spend more frugally and think more pragmatically. # Misc. Pro.
Carr, Nicholas G., 2004, Does IT Matter? information technology and the corrosion of competitive advantage, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, US, 193 p. Each year, companies spend more than $2 trillion on computer and communications equipment and services. Underlying these enormous expenditures is the assumption that information technology is increasingly critical to competitive advantage and strategic success. But IT - like earlier infrastructural technologies such as railroads and electric power - is steadily evolving from a profit-boosting proprietary resource to a simple cost of doing business, including innovations in hardware, software, and networking, neutralizing their strategic advantage. IT's emergence as a shared and standardized infrastructure is a natural and necessary process that may ultimately deliver huge economic and social benefits. (Book is from his 2003 HBR article.) Clio Bus Course Res HD30.2 .C362 2004. # Misc. Bk.
Carraher, Shawn M., M. Ronald Buckley, and Charles E. Carraher, 2002, “Cognitive complexity with employees from entrepreneurial financial information services organizations and education institutions: An extension and replication looking at pay, benefits, and leadership,” Academy of Strategic Management Journal, The DreamCatchers Group, Cullowhee, NC, US, 1(1):43-56. The present study replicated and extended the work of Carraher and Buckley (1996) by testing whether mean group differences in cognitive complexity could influence the observed dimensionality of other types of self-report instruments previously linked to cognitive complexity. It was found that mean group differences in cognitive complexity could account for the observed differences in the number of dimensions with which individuals perceive of the LPC scale (Feidler 1976) [Least Preferred Coworker] and the PSQ (Heneman 1985) [Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire]. But, surprisingly, they could not account for the variations in the dimensionality of the ATBS (Hart 1996) [Attitudes Towards Benefits Scale]. Financial services. Cited Jaques 1961; Streufert 1997; Vecchio 1979; Desmarais & Sackett 1993; Evans & Dermer 1974; Chowdhury & Geringer 2001. Clio since 2002. Rp. PJ.
Carraher, Shawn M., 2003, “Felt Fair Pay, Democracy, and Leadership within Cross-cultural Entrepreneurial Organizations,” Academy of Management, 2003 Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Tuesday, August 5. Program Session #820: Compensation and Incentives. Sponsor: MH. Facilitator: Angela K. Miles; Old Dominion U. Carolyn Dexter Award Nominee. Examined a portion of Jaques' theory of equitable payment, using 6 cross-cultural samples containing 834 financial information services managers and entrepreneurs employed in entrepreneurial organizations in the U.S., Germany, England, Colombia, Japan, and South Korea. Results supported Jaques' proposition about who would be satisfied with their pay level and who not. It was able to correctly predict in over 80% of the cases. Leadership and management levels are important to the relationship between income and pay satisfaction as are differences across democratic republics. FFP:HierLvl. At Cameron. Abstract seen.
Cashman, Paul M., and David Stroll, 1986, “Achieving sustainable complexity through information technology: theory and practice,” ACM Press, Austin, Texas, Session VIII, New York, NY, USA. Proceedings of the 1986 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work. A major challenge facing a business manager is to achieve a sustainable level of success, which in turn means being able to sustainably master the complexity with which s/he must deal. Information technology providers must understand the relationships between the levels of complexity with which managers deal, the value of information at each level, and the resulting information system requirements. See C&S 1986 and Stroll and Cashman articles. Online at:http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=637110&dl=ACM&coll=portal
Chan, Peng S., and Dorothy Heide, 1992, “Information Technology and the New Environment: Developing and Sustaining Competitive Advantage,” S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, Autumn, 57(4):4-9. Argued that the computer gives flexibility. But Table 1 clearly showed “industrial age workers” were at Stratum 1 while “information age workers” were at Stratum 2. THEY are more flexible. Magic thinking about people. Unaware. Contrast with T. N. Warner 1987. MS. PJ. A.
Chandrashekaran, Murali, Raj Mehta, Rajesh Chandrashekaran, and Rajdeep Grewal, 1999, "Market Motives, Distinctive Capabilities, and Domestic Inertia: A Hybrid Model of Innovation Generation," Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), US, Feb1999, 36(1):95-112. ISSN: 00222437. Data for 11 computer software products, involving more than 100 new versions in the period 1991 to 1994, were used to test the hypotheses. Domestic inertia considerations explained 45% of the variance in inter-innovation duration, and market motives and distinctive capabilities explained 33% and 22%, respectively. Supported the expectation of a U-shaped effect of potential competition and find realized competition decreases innovation. Products that were more customer-driven witnessed faster innovation. The diffusion rate of current innovation with product bundling delays further innovation. When a product has a high rate of diffusion, competition does not hasten innovations. [Penrose effect.] Cited by Debruyne et al 2010. At U. Cincinnati; U. Wisc.-Madison; Fairleigh Dickinson U., NJ; Washington State U. # MS. PJ. A.
Child, Peter, Raimund Diederichs, Falk-Hayo Sanders, and Stefan Wisniowski, 1991, "The Management of Complexity," McKinsey Quarterly, NY, NY, US, 1991(4):52-68. 17p. ISSN: 0047-5394. (orig. in 1991 Sloan Management Review) Manufacturers and service providers justify product variety on the basis of offering customers the freedom of choice. What they often may not realize is that excessive variety may actually make the purchase decision daunting for the customer and uneconomical for the manufacturer. There is a point at which external variety (the diversity of product or service offered to customers) turns into excessive internal business complexity (a driver of cost, quality, and time inefficiencies within a business). This is the point at which variety stops being a strategic advantage. It is costly, time consuming, and erodes quality. (The computer offers greater complexity at lower cost. This may be deceptive.) Information technology. INSET: Complexity management at work. Cited in Fields 2001 Related PhD. Teach. # Misc. Pro.
Chun, Ki-Jeong, 1992, The Effectiveness of a Facilitated Group Decision Support System (Decision Conferencing): A UK/US Field Study, Ph.D., thesis in Statistical and Mathematical Sciences, Decision Analysis (Computing Science and Technology, Management Data Processing) (K4h), University of London, London School of Economics (LSE), London, UK, 267 pages. [LSE classmark F6990] Theses # 45-2853. Unpublished thesis. Studies of computer-aided Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) have produced inconsistent results. Decision Conferencing (DC) is one type of GDSS that facilitates group work with regard to decision processes, user attitudes, decision quality and for evaluation of GDSS effectiveness. External turbulence and complexity require greater specialized knowledge, usually beyond that of any individual, be shared at meetings. Three theories were used to construct a framework with criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of decision making in GDSS: Competing Values (Robert Quinn), Stratified Systems (Elliott Jaques) and Human Information Processing (a cognitive theory). All three were shown to share common theoretical assumptions [regarding complexity]. A survey mailed to participants at 22 conferences produced data. Information technology. (The findings were not included in the abstract!) (See Gould 1984, 1986; for Quinn-Jaques see Hooijberg 1992 Related; also, Introna 1992 Related.) Was L. Phillips his advisor? PhD on RO. A.
Commander, Simon, Rupert Harrison, Naercio Menezes-Filho, 2011, “ICT and Productivity in Developing Countries: New Firm-Level Evidence from Brazil and India,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, EBSCOhost EJS, Harvard & MIT, US, May 2011, 93(2):528-541. Used a unique new data set on manufacturing firms in Brazil and India to estimate production functions, augmented by information and communications technology (ICT). Found a strong positive association between ICT capital and productivity in both countries that was robust to several different specification tests. Found that poorer infrastructure quality and labor market policy are associated with lower levels of ICT adoption, while poorer infrastructure was also associated with lower returns to investment. Information technology. At European Bank for Recon. and Devel. & IE Business School, Madrid; Univ. College London; INSPER & Univ. São Paulo. # Misc. PJ. A.
Cusumano, Michael A., and Richard W. Selby, 1996, Microsoft Secrets, how the world's most powerful software company creates technology, shapes markets, and manages people, Harper-Collins, New York, USA, and London UK, 512 p. (p. 14 and 23.) A great book. At S4 level product development - sych and stabilize at MS versus sequential development elsewhere. Project teams limited to 250 in size. See Toyota. Information technology. SEE again. Clio Biz: HD9696.C64 M533 1995 on shelf SIBL JBE 95-2644. MS. Bk.
Cusumano, Michael A., 1997, “How Microsoft makes large teams work like small teams,” Sloan Management Review, Cambridge, MA, Fall 1997, 39(1):9-20. Two development strategies: focus creativity by evolving features and fixing resources, and develop in parallel and synchronize frequently. Set clear boundaries; subdivide products into features and functions, projects mirror structure of products, and create small groups and give each team and individual autonomy and responsibility. [Authority and accountability.] See Frederick 2002. See HBR Jan. 2002, “Inside Microsoft.” Information technology. # MS. Pro.
Cusumano, Michael A., 1998, Thinking Beyond Lean: how multi-project management is transforming product development at Toyota and other companies, Free Press, New York, NY, 248 p. Japanese management. SIBL JBE 98-1871. Not in Clio or CUNY. It is in Stevens TL278 .C87 1998. Information technology. SEE AGAIN. MS. Bk.
Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Joel, et al [14 authors], 1998, Knowledge-driven Work: unexpected lessons from Japanese and United States work practices, Oxford University Press, London & NY, 188 p. Foreword by Thomas A. Kochan and Haruo Shimada. Based on the authors' visits to Japanese and US plants. This book was written in response to the ‘other MIT book’ advocating 'lean production' which the authors reported was used at NUMMI. Instead, Toyota went to 'humanware' and NEVER went to lean techniques until much later – and then only a few. Here – people matter: How knowledge is imbedded in workers and how it is used and communicated among them. See Womack, Jones, & Roos 1991. At MIT. SIBL - JBE 10-660. MS. Bk.
Dale, Alan, 1986, “MANDIT. Part 2, Aids to development”, “Unit 6, Organisational learning about information technology: a manager's guide and a strategy,” Brunel Institute of Organisation and Social Studies, [for] Manpower Services Commission, Sheffield, G.B., 21 p. Information Technology. [In LSE library] (I have no idea where Part 1 is, nor where “Units 1-5” are.) See Algie 1986. See MANDIT 1986. Ru.
Dale, Alan, 1986, “MANDIT. Part 2, Aids to development.” “Unit 7, Matching information technology to your organisation: a manager's guide to assessing the appropriateness of IT systems,” Brunel Institute of Organisation and Social Studies, [for] Manpower Services Commission, Sheffield, Great Britain, 17 pages. Information Technology. [In LSE library] (I have no idea where Part 1 is, nor where “Units 1-5” are.) See Algie 1986. See MANDIT 1986. Ru.
Davenport, Thomas H., 1994, "Saving IT's Soul: Human-Centered Information Management," Harvard Business Review, Mar/Apr94, 72(2):119-131. ISSN: 00178012. Word Cnt: 7316. Argued that to achieve its promise, information technology needs to take a human-centered approach. However, implementing such an approach means building flexibility and disorder into information systems and changing corporate behaviors that discourage information sharing. Addressed how to get beyond IT to changing people's behaviors. A Partner at Ernst & Young, and Boston U. (Compare with Japanese human wea.) See Perrow 1983. Teach. # Misc. Pro.
Davenport, Thomas H., 2011, "Rethinking Knowledge Work: A strategic approach," McKinsey Quarterly, NY, NY, US, 2011(1):89-99. 11p. Word Count: 3457. ISSN: 0047-5394. Focused on means of improving productivity of knowledge workers. Merely increasing the amount of information technology available to such workers is actually counterproductive as it fails to account for the very different responsibilities knowledge workers have within organizations. The key to improving their productivity is applying information technology in a more precise way. Two strategic plans - giving knowledge workers free access to information and information technology, and providing them with those tools on a structured basis - are compared. A hybrid approach is suggested. Cited in Fields 2001 Related PhD. # Refu. Pro.
Davenport, Thomas H., Paul Barth, and Randy Bean, 2012, "How ‘Big Data’ Is Different," MIT Sloan Management Review, Cambridge, MA, US, July 2012. These days, lots of people in business are talking about “big data.” But how do the potential insights from big data differ from what managers generate from traditional analytics? Most important, this will change the relationship between the line functions and IT. Firms that capitalize on big data stand apart from traditional data analysis environments in three key ways: 1) They pay attention to data flows as opposed to stocks; 2) They rely on data scientists and product and process developers rather than data analysts, and; 3) They are moving analytics away from the IT function and into core business, operational and production functions. (IT began as a marketing tool.) # Misc. Pro.
Dayan, Rony, and Stephen Evans, 2006, “KM your way to CMMI”, Journal of Knowledge Management, UK, 2006, 10(1):69-80. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1826/1155 doi: 10.1108/13673270610650111 Described two related fields – knowledge management (KM) and capability maturity model integrated (CMMISM) – and highlighted their similarities. As observed by Boehm (2000), CMM separated the software engineer from the concern for system architecture and software requirements: Analysis and allocation of the system requirements was a prerequisite for the the software engineering group work (Paulk et al., 1995) - a precise specification they could turn into code. As defined by Harigopal and Satyadas (2001) KM provides the strategy, process, and technology to share and leverage information and expertise. KM does this with procedures as “knowledge capture” – documenting existing processes, or “good practices” – disseminating and leveraging experienced procedures. CMMISM then identifies priorities for improvement, and provides guidance on the implementation of these improvements. Interestingly, one methodology has taken effect on the other to enhance the knowledge and clear concept of the operation and its problem solving capability. Information Technology. See Dayan 2006 Related PhD. At Cranfield U., UK. # MS. PJ.
Dealtry, Richard, 2006, "The Corporate University's Role in Managing an Epoch in Learning Organisation Innovation,” Journal of Workplace Learning, MCB UP, Emerald, Bradford, UK, July, 18(5):313-320. The forces at work indicate that piecemeal and information technology (IT) dominated practices around learning processes produce a lack of coherence between learning investments and vision, strategic intent, and need-to-learn needs of individuals in an organisation. 'Solutions' to these conditions are invariably without full consideration of the overall effect. Those professionals who manage learning have to be open to new ideas and new process learning. Cited Stamp & Stamp 1993. CUNY, NYPL, Clio online. # Rp. PJ.
Dearden, John, 1966, “Myth of Real-Time Management Information,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, US, May/Jun66, 44(3):123-132. The article raises serious questions concerning potential uses of a “real-time information system” by top management. The functions of top management on which decision making can or cannot be helped by real-time computer systems are - management control, strategic planning, personnel planning, coordination, operating control, and personal appearances. See P. Hunt 1966. # MS. Pro.
Dearden, John, 1972, “MIS Is a Mirage,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, Jan/Feb72, 50(1):90-99. Every company of any size has many information systems, both formal and informal. The formal systems it uses cover such a variety of territory that one man cannot possibly comprehend the mass of details and principles required to design a single supersystem that embraces them all. This includes Superman. The components that must be amalgamated are too different in their natures to be fused together effectively. Information Technology. (But - even if we do it, anything it doesn’t take into account, isn’t part of the business and so can be ignored. Right? e.g. the environment. Humans versus the machines. The dream of centralization of power over others dies hard. See Simon.) [See Taube 1961 quote on scientists, on p. 99.] See Pearson Hunt 1966. City Coll, Baruch. # MS. Pro.
Dearden, John, and Richard L. Nolan, 1973, “How to Control the Computer Resource,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, Nov-Dec., 51(6):68-78. The authors demonstrate that good management of the EDP resource is an unusually tricky affair - a company can easily miscontrol itself right into waste and futility. They examined which blend of control mechanisms are needed to assure top management that its hold on the computer resource is real, sensitive, efficacious, effective and efficient. The time horizon of the computer reports must match the firm’s strategy, as well as that of the managerial users of the reports.) Cited in Gibson and Nolan 1974. # W. Pro.
Dearden, John, 1983, “Will the Computer Change the Job of Top Management?” Sloan Management Review, SMR Forum, Cambridge, MA, US, Fall83, 25(1):57-60. Most important management problems have not been solved by automation. If interested, a top manager should get a personal computer and, provided it is not used to harass operating managers, the computer will do no harm and it may be useful for certain things. Important information required by top managers can best be supplied by staff. It is not necessary for a manager to query a computer directly. In fact, the greatest impact of the personal computer will be on managers of small businesses. Jaques not cited. Baruch, City Coll., Htr Mn. At HBS. # Misc. Pro.
DeSanctis, Gerardine, and Marshall Scott Poole, 1994, “Capturing the Complexity in Advanced Technology Use: Adaptive Structuration Theory,” Organization Science, May, 5(2):121-147. Authors propose a new theoretical approach, Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST), to examine the change process from two vantage points: the structures offered by a new information technology and the social structures that emerge as people adapt to it in use. Conducted a multi-level examination of Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS). An interesting and potentially valuable approach to vertical-horizontal structural issues along temporal lines. See Maznevski and Chudoba 2000. # MS. PJ. A.
Dodge, George E., Webb, H. W., and Christ, R. E., 1999, “The impact of information technology on battle command: Lessons from management science and business,” U.S. Army Research Institute of the Behavioral Sciences, ARI Technical Report 1091. Unpublished. Ru.
Dreyfus, Hubert L., and Stuart E. Dreyfus, with Tom Athanasiou, 1986, Mind Over Machine: the power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer, Free Press, New York, NY, 231 pages. Little 1990 cited this book as a critique of Jaques’ time span based hierarchy. Not so. Jaques agreed with D&D on the limits of “calculative rationality” used by the computer. Jaques 1996 had similar concerns to D&D. See RO2, pp. 20, 21, 26. Technologically dated, but an excellent book. For example, the use of NPV led managers toward conservative investments when instead they should plunge in at certain moments guided by their experience and mature judgment. (Did Jaques see it?) Not in NYPL. CUNY Hunter Mn, JJay, Baruch Q335 .D73 1986. Missing from Baruch and Hunter Mn. shelves. MS. Bk.
Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., 1989, "Making Fast Strategic Decisions in High-Velocity Environments," The Academy of Management Journal, US, Sep. 1989, 32(3):543-576. How do executive teams make rapid decisions in the high-velocity microcomputer industry? This inductive study of eight microcomputer firms led to propositions exploring that question. Fast decision makers use more, not less, information than do slow decision makers. They also develop more, not fewer, alternatives, and use a two-tiered advice process. Fast decisions based on this pattern of behaviors lead to superior performance. [Described Serial and Parallel thinking (L3 and L4). Thanks to E. Forrest Christian.] Jaques not cited. Corroborated by Thomas & McDaniel 1990. At Stanford U. # MS. PJ. A.
Faunce, William A., 1965, “Automation and the Division of Labor,” Social Problems, UC-Berkeley, Cal., USA, Autumn 1965, 13(2):149-160. Specialization of function has been a cardinal principle of business organization since the beginning of the industrialization process. Increasing job simplification meant increasing efficiency of operation. But the effects of full automation suggest a decrease in division of labor in both offices and factories. Job enlargement in the sense of responsibility for a larger share of the production process appears to be the key element in this change. The effects should be profound. [Note the non-discussion of computers.] Cited Blauner 1964. See Braverman 1974. At Mich. State, US. # Refu. PJ.
Fonda, Nickie, 1986, “MANDIT, (Pt.2), Aids to developmental performance through information technology: a guide for top managers,” Manpower Services Commission, Great Britain, 16 p., Brunel Institute of Organisation and Social Studies (Bioss). Management Development for Information Technology. Management information systems; Data processing. Typo in title. See MANDIT 1986. Brunel Uxbridge T58.6.M36 VOL.2/1. Not seen. Rp. Rep.
Fonda, Nickie, 1986, “MANDIT. (Pt.2), Aids to development for information technology: a guide for management development managers,” Manpower Services Commission, Great Britain, 16 p. Brunel Institute of Organisation and Social Studies (Bioss). Management Development for Information Technology. Management information systems; Data processing. Typo in title. See MANDIT 1986. Brunel Uxbridge T58.6.M36 VOL.2/8. Not seen. Rp. Rep.
Frederick, Jim, 2002, “Microsoft’s $40 Billion Bet,” Money Magazine, May 2002, p. 66-79. (Bill Gates & Co. are Hoarding Cash. Is it an Insurance Policy? A Tax Play? A Tool to Transform the Company?). Plus, a four-page centerfold graph/article by Erica Garcia, Jeanne Lee, and Cybele Weisser, “A Look at How the World’s Most Important Tech Firm Makes and Spends its Cash.” The main article asks senior MS execs what they are anticipating: the answer is “over the next 10 years...” These are clearly Stratum Six VPs reporting to CEO Steve Balmer. Gates now floats. See Cusumano 1997. See HBR Jan. 2002, “Inside Microsoft.” NYPL, Hum Gen Res, Periodicals 108. Information technology. # D. Pro.
Freeman, Chris, and Luc Soele, 1994, Work for All or Mass Unemployment? Computerised technical change into the twenty-first century, St. Martins/ Pinter Pub., NY, NY/London, UK, 193 p. An excellent book on technology and economics. Electrification of industry in the 1920s led from one overhead steam cam shaft to greater flexibility in factory layouts, greater efficiency of production lines – and mass layoffs. This led to the Depression of the 1930s. ICT will do the same after 2000. (My analysis leads to the same conclusion but through different reasoning.) NYPL os JBD 94-1735. Clio os. CUNY Baruch, Htr Mn HD6331 .F67. # MS. Bk.
Friedman, Andrew L., 1987, “Specialist Labour in Japan: Computer Skilled Staff and the Subcontracting System,” British Journal of Industrial Relations, UK, Nov87, 25(3):353-369. A second belt of insecure and temporary workers surround the permanent members of the firm who enjoy lifetime employment, seniority wages, and enterprise unionism. Skipping to the next rank of pay is the jinjikoka evaluation of the employee. This decision is made by the personnel department - outside the DP department. Job rotation weakened identification with any department. In the UK DP personnel identify with the profession, not the firm or the industry. There was high turnover. In Japan less than half considered themselves to be specialists. This subcontracting system (shitauke) acts to weaken the Japanese computer software sector. This also becomes a pyramid of contractors. Large firms send employees to the smaller contractors (shukko). Haken is movement between firms taking into account the relative level of the employee. A correct description of Japanese labour practices. # MS. PJ. A.
Fulmer, Robert M., 1993, “The tools of anticipatory learning,” The Journal of Management Development, Bradford, 1993, 12(6):7-14. Forecasting is the foundation for strategic planning, yet the reliability of future forecasts is a matter of hard knowledge of prevailing trends and potential developments, informed intuition, and luck. Most forecasting techniques can be placed on a spectrum ranging from highly quantitative, analytic models to intuitive guesses. These include: 1. quantitative forecasting tools, such as customer surveys, derived forecasts, causal models, and time series analysis, 2. Delphi forecasting, 3. scenario analysis, 4. content analysis, 5. impact analysis, 6. groupware, and 7. micro world/computer simulations. These techniques quantify the intuitive judgment of skilled managers. Cited Jaques 1964 TSH. # Rp. PJ.
Fulmer, Robert M, and Solange Perret, 1993, “The Merlin Exercise: Future by forecast or future by invention?” The Journal of Management Development, Bradford, UK, 1993, 12(6):44-52. The Merlin Exercise integrates the prevalent model that is called the forecasted future paradigm with another model, called the invented future. The forecasted future is a paradigm that involves analysis of current data and trends to arrive at a forecast of the future. The invented future requires managers to describe their organization at some point in the future, as if it had been totally successful. They then think and plan backwards from that envisioned future to take effective action in the present. (The two Jaques domains.) Cited Hamel & Prahalad 1989. Jaques not cited, but see above. # Rp. PJ.
Galbraith, Jay R., 2014, "Organizational Design Challenges Resulting from Big Data," Journal of Organization Design, Aarhus U., DK, April, 3(1):2-13. Business firms and other organizations are feverishly exploring ways of taking advantage of the big data phenomenon. Discussed firms that are at the leading edge of developing a big data analytics capability. The most successful firms are able to use big data not only to improve their existing businesses but to create new businesses as well. Putting a strategic emphasis on big data requires adding an analytics capability to the existing organization. This results in power shifting to analytics experts and in decisions being made in real time. [These experts do not appear to be accountable for work.] Jaques not cited. Cited Chandler 1962; Galbraith 2010, 2014. # Misc. PJ.
Gallivan, Michael J., and Gordon Depledge, 2003, "Trust, control and the role of interorganizational systems in electronic partnerships," Information Systems Journal, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, April, 13(2):159–190. Organizations are increasingly migrating to new organizational structures in which partnerships and interorganizational systems (IOSs) are becoming more important. The success of these partnerships depends on both trust and control – complex constructs that act on and shape each other over time. Findings suggest that researchers fail to distinguish the need for trust (which is inversely related to the organization's ability to control its partners) and the level of trust (which is an actual quantity that may change during the lifetime of the partnership). Management attempts to close this gap by changing the level of control. (This does not work, but ...) Created a framework for relating trust and control. Cited and validated by Ibbott and O’Keefe 2004. Fox and Jaques not cited. Cited Das and Teng 1998, 1999, 2001; Bertalanffy 1973; Ashby 1956. See Das; Sabel. Both at Ga. State U. (close) # MS. PJ.
Gould, Donald Porter, 1986, “Stratified Systems Theory in the Design of Organization-wide Information Systems,” International Journal of Information Management, March 1986, 6(1):5-15. MIS has focused on the internal, concrete data requirements of lower organizational levels to the exclusion of the external, intuitive, problem-finding needs of strategic levels. Specified the varying information requirements of each managerial level within the organization’s environmental context. Information Technology. (See LSE Professor Lawrence Phillips and Chun 1992 PhD.) Teach. # Rp. PJ. *****
Graham, Ann, 2010, “Too Good to Fail," Strategy + Business, Booz & Co., NY, NY, US, Spring 2010, Issue 58, p. 1-12. Reprint 10106. India’s Tata, one of the world’s largest conglomerates, is basing an ambitious global strategy on 142 years of social entrepreneurship. It maintains an active social role of long-term commitment and values to produce social capital. Executives refer to the Tata conglomerate as ‘family.’ Hard assets are for sustainable growth. Recently they purchased Corus Steel and Jaguar Land Rover (JLR). The conventional view is conglomerates are unfocused and sluggish. In 1992 its revenue was $5.8 Bn, and its profits were $320 Mn. By 2008 it was $62.5 Bn, and its profits were $5.4. Its family values stand up in the capital markets outside India. N.Y. Reputation Institute ranked them with Google, Microsoft, GE, Toyota, Coca-Cola, Intel, and Unilever. Tata Steel won the Deming Prize in 2008. The firm provides the poorest with products they can afford – like water purifiers. Tata is emerging from the financial crisis relatively unscathed. Jaques, Billis, not mentioned. # MS. Pro.
Greiner, Larry E., D. Paul Leitch, and Louis B. Barnes, 1970, “Putting Judgment Back Into Decisions,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, Mar-Apr 1970, 48(2):59-67. A major task of management is to know what is actually going on in its organization. The use of objective (computer generated) data on operations leads to differing assessments of unit performance among managers. Managerial knowledge is the context. Without this, numerous myths and assumptions abound. As a result, mistrust of managerial judgment grows. Calls for more numbers is one clear sign of this distrust. Managers who use older, more qualitative information agree with each other more and take actions that are more stable. Top managers must strive to make IT systems more “helpful servants rather than irrelevant masters.” Information Technology. # MS. Pro.
Hawkins, Jeff, with Sandra Blakeslee, 2004, On Intelligence, Times Books, NY, NY, US; Owl Books, London, UK, 261 p. Asserted mainstream IQ researchers have put too much emphasis on problem solving, and neglected the two things that the brain does best - recognizing patterns and forecasting events. The brain’s neocortex is a memory-driven system that uses our senses and our perception of time, space, and consciousness to construct a predictive model of the world in a way that’s totally unlike even the most complex computer software. Predictions are the essence of ‘real’ intelligence – not AI. The neocortex has a hierarchical structure for storing patterns, sequences, and temporalities. Developed the PalmPilot. Cited by Lunoe 2009. Boro of Manh CC: QP376 .H294 2005. Sibl br & Mid-Manh 612.82H. Refu. Bk.
Hayden, F. Gregory, 1993, “Order Matters, and Thus So Does Timing: Graphical Clocks and Process Synchronicity,” Journal of Economic Issues, Association for Evolutionary Economics, Lincoln, NE, [Cal State, Sacramento, CA,] Mar93, 27(1):95-115, 1 chart, 3 diagrams. Quoted Jaques 1982 FT on time as directionless. The definition of time is reviewed, particular dimensions of time are discussed, and the relationship of those dimensions to graphical clocks is examined. The clocks for the integration of system networks will be computerized matrices and concomitant digraphs. Such networks can be used to provide a standardized system clock to determine timeliness. This places events into a common system, which is timed by sequenced events. The coordination of broadly recurring sets of meaningful events characterizes synchronicity. Thus, timeliness is defined by system synchronicity. # Rp. PJ.
Hedén, Ylva, 2005, Productivity, Upskilling, Entry and Exit: evidence from the UK and Swedish micro-data, Ph.D., thesis in Economics, Queen Mary College, University of London, UK, B9d, 206 p. Index # 56-3543. EThOS / BL Ref DXN099226. At Mile End Liby ZTH4197HED (THESIS). PhD 2005 QM. Published as article: Haskel & Hedén 1999. (Heden, .) Two UK panel data sets were used to investigate skill-upgrading in the UK and how it has been affected by computerisation. Census data reveals that most aggregate skill-upgrading is explained by within-establishment rises in skill composition. Such upgrading is significantly related to computerisation, a relation robust to different worker and computer types, endogeneity, human capital upgrading, and other technology measures. We also find interactions between survival, size and age of establishment that differ between establishments that are singles and part of a group. This finding may be consistent with market selection models based on learning. In the Swedish chapter I find that hazards differ between single and group firms. This is consistent with efficient internal markets within group firms. In chapters 3 and 5 we examine the contribution to productivity growth of ‘internal’ restructuring (such as new technology and organisational change among survivors) and ‘external’ (the process by which less efficient establishments exit and more [???] enter and increase market share). For UK and Sweden we find that (a) ‘external restructuring’ accounts for 40-50% of establishment labour productivity growth, and 50-90% of establishment MFP/TFP growth; (b) external competition is an important determinant of internal restructuring; (c) in Sweden, the process of external restructuring is more evident during recessions. Related PhD. A.
Heiskala, Mikko, Kari Hiekkanen, and Janne J. Korhonen, 2011, "The Impact of Information Technology Enabled Services on Value Co-Creation", Presented at Naples Forum on Service2011, in Capri, Italy, on 16 June 2011. Part of Korhonen's PhD studies. The diffusion of information technology has shifted the IT focus to operant resources: discretionary measures and systemic competencies. In the wake of digitization, codification and automation of services through ICT, the locus of human labor in service provision is moving up in the capability hierarchy: from delivery of services to handling of exceptions and (re)definition/(re)negotiation of services. This places new requirements on the service provider competencies and management capabilities. Cited Jaques 1964, 1976, 1986, 1994, 1998, 2002; Cashman & Stroll 1987; Rowbottom & Billis 1987; Korhonen, et al, 2010. # Rp. Conf.
Henderson, Andrew D., Danny Miller, and Donald C. Hambrick, 2006, “How Quickly Do CEOs Become Obsolete? Industry dynamism, CEO tenure, and company performance,” Strategic Management Journal, Wiley InterScience, 27(5):447-460. Scholars have characterized CEO tenures as life cycles in which executives learn rapidly during their initial time in office, but then grow stale as they lose touch with the external environment. In the stable food industry, 98 firm-level CEO performances improved steadily with tenure, with downturns occurring only among the few CEOs who served more than 10-15 years. In contrast, in the dynamic computer industry, 228 CEOs were at their best when they started their jobs, and firm performance declined steadily across their tenures, presumably as their paradigms grew obsolete more quickly than they could learn. [Dynamic? Chaotic? Empirical? Where are the VCs? Or are they the problem?] Alt. PJ. A.
Herbold, Robert J., 2002, “Inside Microsoft: Balancing Creativity and Discipline,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, Jan., p. 73-79. Seven years earlier, Herbold came from Procter and Gamble where things had been formal. But at MS meetings had an ad hoc quality. He dressed in khaki shorts. His new experience of delegated responsibility and decision-making was exhilarating but also disorienting. Financial and operating data in each division was constructed to fit the division’s needs not those of the corporation. The result was disastrous. Top management took weeks to harmonize the diverse frameworks. A single IT system company-wide solved the problem and produced uniformly-defined information by division and geography. The Purchasing and Invoicing took two systems. The new human resources management system strengthened MS’s ability to attract and to assess top talent. The firm uses a 3-year planning forecast for existing and new products. These new systems simplified the jobs of those who used them daily so they were accepted. But the CEO had to fully back the new systems for them to be installed by managers. Information Technology. Author was MS’s COO 1995-2001. # Misc. Pro.
Hinson, Gerald Bernard, 1994, High-reliability Response Organizations: Structure and information flow in crisis, Ph.D., dissertation in Information Systems, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 308 pages; AAT 9522940. DAI-A 56/02, p. 389, Aug 1995. Unpublished. Three simulated disaster responses – an earthquake, a major flood, and a hurricane – are analyzed to determine whether real-time organizational restructuring occurs in High Reliability Response Organizations (HRROs). HRROs are the emergency management component within a municipality charged with the responsibility of managing the extraordinary information processing loads that occur during a disaster. The macro-level organization consists of the following functional areas: (1) Government, (2) Police, (3) Fire, (4) Public Works, (5) Mass Care, (6) Emergency Operations, (7) Emergency Medical, (8) Dispatch, and (9) Others. The micro-level organization stratifies the organization into three groups within each functional area. These groups are the policy group, the coordination group, and the operations group. This sub-grouping allows us to assess the extent of interactions that are ongoing within a functional area as well as the cross-functional interactions. The study found that HRROs tend to maintain their hierarchical structures throughout the disasterinstead of restructuring into polycentered groups or tactical teams. Consistent informal structures do not emerge during the high-tempo and emergency periods of the disaster as initially hypothesized. Related PhD.
Humphreys, Patrick C., 1984, “Levels of Representation in Structuring Decision Problems,” Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Lancaster Uni., UK, January, 11:3-22. [Peter Checkland was at L.U.] Var. title: “Levels of Representation in Structuring Decision Problems.” [Now: European Journal of Information Systems] Linked Piaget and Jaques to decision formulation at appropriate organizational Strata. As of 1984: S1, S2, and S3 were served but S4 and S5 were not. Article has a pivotal bibliography. Cited in Dobson et al 1994; L. D. Phillips 1984. See Larichev 1984; Vari and Vecsenyi 1984 (in same JASA issue). Rutgers Liby has it. # Rp. PJ.
Hunt, Pearson, 1966, “The Fallacy of the One Big Brain,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, July-Aug., p. 84-90. The top-dogs cannot do all the planning for the organization. Planning must be part of every manager’s job at every level so they become skilled at it. “A company that denies the planning dimension of work to the lower levels of management obtains what it deserves -- [people] who, when promoted, are not able to plan ahead.” There is no one big ‘rational’ decision - and computers magnify the fallacy. Each major decision is made up of multiple sequential ones before it - the decision system - and the hierarchical assignment of work to implement it. (Article was viewed as a major early treatment of corporate decentralization.) Thanked Edna Homa (PhD 1967). Cited Jaques 1964. Cited Yair Aharoni, 1966, The Foreign Investment Decision Process, HBSP, Boston, MA. See Dearden 1966; Kriger, HBS PhD 1983; Bhardwaj 2000 Related PhD. # Rp. Pro. *****
Ibbott, Christopher J., and Robert M. O'Keefe, 2004, "Trust, planning and benefits in a global interorganizational system," Information Systems Journal, Wiley-Blackwell, UK, Apr2004, 14(2):131-152. ISSN: 13501917. Described an example of an IOS developed as part of a strong inter-firm relationship based on trust. In 1999, Vodafone of the UK embarked on a transformation to globalize with Ericsson of Sweden, moving from in-country relationships to a global relationship mediated through an IOS. Vodafone and Ericsson pursued a journey-oriented approach to globalization and development, freed from any formal project plan, and identified asymmetric benefits. Using Gallivan & Depledge (2003), we explored the roles and dynamics of trust, planning, and benefits. We posited that a journey or improvisational approach to IOS development worked where a relationship was strong and levels of inter-firm trust were high. Jaques and Fox not cited. Cited Ibbott's 2001 Interesting PhD; Das & Teng 2001; Whyte et al 1991 (miscited as Foote); Zand 1972. At Vodafone; U. Surrey, Guildford, UK. # MS. PJ.
Introna, Lucas Daniel, 1992, Towards a Theory of Management Information, D.Com., dissertation in Information Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Not available from UMI. DAI-A 53/11, p. 3714, May 1993. Advisors: J.D. Roode and M.J. Venter. Published as a chapter, “Information: A Hermeneutic Perspective,” in Whitley, Edgar A, ed., 1993, p. 171-179. Expanded on Mintzberg’s view of the thrown-into-the-world nature of the manager’s existence. The law of requisite variety holds that for one system to control another the first must be at least as “variety-rich” as the second. The organization has purposeful systems. Variety comes into existence only when information is transferred or communicated. Thus, management information (including Information Technology (IT) systems) was the actualization of management-in-the-world [q.v. Heidegger]. This relates the complexity of information and information systems to management hierarchy levels. (See Ph.D.s and articles: Boals 1985, 1992, Gould 1986, Samaras 1993, and Chun, 1992; see Related Hooijberg 1992; see Wooten 1979 MS.) Related PhD.
Ivanov, Sergey 2002, “Recommendations for the Practical Use of Elliott Jaques' Organizational and Social Theories in the Information Technology Field: Teams, Software, Databases, Telecommunications and Innovations,” chapter 29 in Kirikova, Marite, Janis Grundspenkis, Wita Wojtkowski, W. Gregory Wojtkowski, Stanislaw Wrycza, and Joze Zupancic, eds., 2002, Information Systems Development, advances in methodologies, components, and management, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, Dordrecht, London, Moscow, p. 323-340. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Systems Development: Methods and Tools, Theory and Practice, Riga, Latvia, Sept. 12-14, 2002. Rp. Ch.
Jasinski, Frank J., 1956, “Use and Misuse of Efficiency Controls,” Harvard Business Review, Boston, MA, July-August 1956, p. 105-112. A classic on the dysfunctional consequences of controls. An indictment of Taylorist and accounting control concepts. A reality-based analysis of their destructive impacts on the workplace. Showed the dysfunctionality of these methods and how they can destroy productivity, quality, and profits. Described how accountants become “managers by default” yet were blocked from correcting the defects in this system. A close and careful analysis of workplace control concepts then in place [and - with the computer - still followed in many workplaces into the 21st century.] Not on RO theory. Refuted the status quo. Still valid. The flip-side is even more so today. Based on his 1955 PhD at Yale. See John Dearden articles on accounting control systems, 1968-1987. See Ridgway 1956. Refu. Pro.
Johnson, Chalmers, 1988, “Japanese-style Management in America,” California Management Review, Berkeley, CA, Summer 1988, 30(4):34-45. The management lesson from Japan: “Labor in advanced capitalism means ‘Human Capital’ that is cultivated and developed within a firm as carefully as any proprietary trademark.” (Humanware.) Cited Koike 1978. Teach. MS. Pro.
Joshi, Kazlash, 1989, “Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity in Information Systems Design,” OMEGA, International Journal of Management Science, Maxwell Pergamon Macmillan plc, UK, 17(4):369-380. Provided evidence to support the relevance of role conflict and role ambiguity in the users' evaluation of information systems. It introduces a socio-technical systems perspective as a framework for research. Results of an empirical survey are reported which evaluate the impact of information systems on role conflict/role ambiguity. The systems staff can no longer afford to concentrate only on the technical aspects of their jobs and ignore the impact their action and decisions have on the social subsystem of the organization. They must become STS designers. Cited Schuler 1977; Schuler et al 1977. At MO. U. – St. Louis. # Misc. PJ.
Kallinikos, Jannis, 1998, “Organized Complexity: Posthumanist Remarks on the Technologizing of Intelligence,” Organization, Sage, UK, Aug., 5(3):371-396. He found role systems keep agency attached to humans. Technology detaches it and embodies it in material artifacts. Information technology. At LSE, 2005. Misc. PJ. *****
Kanter, Jerry, 1992, “Information Literacy for the CEO,” chapter 2 (p. 17-28) in Holtman, Clive, ed., 1992, Executive Information Systems and Decision Support, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 246 p. Information literacy, not individual computer literacy, is paramount for a CEO to know. How is the information system managed? Jaques not cited. Cited Dearden 1966, 1972, 1983. [Misspelled as Deardon]. Baruch HD30.23 .E94 1992. At Babson Coll. # MS. Ch.
Kazlash, 1989. See Joshi, Kazlash, 1989.
Kinston, Warren, and Ralph Rowbottom, 1989, “Levels of Work: New Applications to Management in Large Organisations,” Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Lancaster Uni., Macmillian, UK, 16:19-34. (Now: European Journal of Information Systems since 1991). [C. West Churchman’s journal on general systems.] A summary of levels of work theory and its application to NHS. The NHS had weaknesses at L-5 and L-3 with the resultant intrusion of managers from L-6 and L-4 in matters too detailed for them. The loss of cost control over workload and quality was inevitable. Cited in Kinston and Algie 1989. Cited Beer 1979, 1981; Billis 1980, 1985; Brown 1971; Evans 1976; Jaques 1965, 1972, 1976, 1978, 1982; Kinston 1981, 1983, 1986, 1988; Overveit 1980, 1984; Rowbottom 1974, 1977, 1987; Stamp 1988. Brunel Uxbridge TA168 .A1 J62. SUNY Binghamton: ILL. NYPL. # Rp. PJ.
Kinston, Warren, and Ralph Rowbottom, 1990, “A New Model of Managing Based on Levels of Work,” Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Lancaster Uni., Macmillian, UK, 17:89-113. (Now: European Journal of Information Systems since 1991). [C. West Churchman’s journal on general systems.] If the design of work is to be well-matched to human potentials then Jaques’s and Brown’s levels of work are indispensible. But the theory needs to be expanded into managerial levels. The seven basic levels of work form a structure or hierarchy. The top six form processes of ‘levels of managing’ or leadership, mission focus, decisions, and actions. This was widely read by managers in the NHS. Cited Brown 1960, 1971; Jaques 1976, 1978; Kinston 1982, et al; Kinston & Rowbottom 1989; Ovretveit 1984; Rowbottom; Stamp; Mintzberg; Shein. Brunel Uxbridge TA168 .A1 J62. SUNY Binghamton: ILL NYPL. # Rp. PJ.
Kirs, Peeter J., G. Lawrence Sanders, Robert P. Cerveny, and Daniel Robey, 1989, “An Experimental Validation of the Gorry and Scott Morton Framework,” MIS Quarterly, (in Theory and Research), June, 13(2):183-197. Support is found that the level of information attributes varies across system type in the direction postulated as predicted by the original 1971 functional-user framework for MIS based on Antony 1965 and Simon 1960 by G. Anthony Gorry and Michael S. Scott Morton in MIT SMR, Fall 1971, 13(1):55-70. Cited “Jacques and Brown, 1976” (sic) on p. 184 as user-oriented. Information technology. (Gorry and Scott Morton article reprinted as chapter 1 in Rockart, John F., and Christine V. Bullen, eds., 1986. See also Kirs 1987 PhD.) # Rp. PJ. A.
Klenke, Karin, 1993, “Changing roles of information systems professionals: from technical managers to strategic leaders,” Proceedings of the 1993 conference on Computer personnel research, ACM Press, June 1993. Argued existing and emergent technologies provide leadership opportunities for information systems (IS) professionals that expand their roles from technical managers to strategic leaders. Four leadership roles are proposed, supported by group decision support systems, executive information, and strategic information systems. New competencies are needed, especially interpersonal and conceptual skills. Cited EJ 1989, EJ & SC 1991.
Korac-Kakabadse, Nada, 1997, Leadership Philosophies and Organisational Adoption of New Information Technology, Ph.D., thesis in Information Technology Management, Faculty of Commerce, University of Western Sydney – Nepean, NSW, AU, 510 p. UWS: Penrith (Ward) – Archives 658.4038 K9. Online via UWS library: http://handle.uws.edu.au:8081/1959.7/294 Unpublished. A study of the relationship between information technology (IT) dimensions and three organizational properties: leadership philosophies, organizational context, and IT strategic choice. Six hypotheses were formulated and tested using data collected from a sample of 750 senior civil servants across the Australian Public Service (APS). Results suggest that organizational IT was defined by four dimensions: IT deployment, IT skills, IT training, and IT impact on the organization, and that all four dimensions were necessary for the effective adoption of IT. Leadership philosophy emerged as the most influential determinant for effective IT adoption, whilst only certain aspects of organizational context and strategic choice variables showed a significant influence. Adoption was strongly influenced by the leadership philosophies held by senior APS managers and to some extent by organizational context, and IT strategic choice. Cited Jaques 1951, 1956, 1967, 1979, 1986, 1989; Jacobs & Jaques 1987, 1990; Hunt 1984, 1991; W. Brown 1960, 1964; Newman & Rowbottom 1968; Sashkin 1984, 1990, 1992; A. Kakabadse 1977, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1996 (3); Haveman 1993, 1995; Evered 1983. Related PhD.
Korhonen, Janne J., Kari Hiekkanen, and Mikko Heiskala, 2010, "Map to Service-Oriented Business and IT: A Stratified Approach," in Proceedings of the 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems, Lima, Peru, August 12-15. AMCIS 2010 Proceedings: Paper 157. Part of Korhonen's PhD studies. To succeed in the current business environment, organizations need to be innovative, flexible, and faster in the face of uncertainty, complexity and change. As the perspective has moved from products to services, enterprises have componentized their structures to operate in the newly emerging collaborative ecosystems. Service-oriented information technology approaches have proven to be well suited to this business transformation. Increasingly, Information Technology capabilities also drive business strategy. To create a ‘big picture’ that brings together different viewpoints and their relations and helps positioning and comparing various approaches to service systems, we put forth a new artifact, the Map to Service-Oriented Business and IT. This map uses a layered approach and is divided to four viewpoints along two dimensions: business-IT continuum and distinction between internal and external. The layering is grounded in the Stratified Systems Theory, a cognitively motivated theory on organizations. Cited Jaques 1998; Calitz 2007; Dive 2008; Fallow 2007; Gould 1986. # Rp. Conf.
Korhonen, Janne J., 2014, "Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?" Journal of Organization Design, Aarhus U., DK, April, 3(1):31-36. Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that "Big Data" would provide a basis for a new strategic level of work that will be 'concatenated' into organization structures. How is the 'concatenation' of the new dimension structurally manifested and can it be explained in terms of an additional stratum, reflecting a stepwise growth in new strategic dimension? Evolution of organizational structures often reflects changes in strategy resulting from an expansion of organization activities and increase in complexity. What role will Big Data have in structural evolution? Cited Jaques 1976, 1986, 1991, 1994, 1998 (RO2), 2002 (LBLO); Ivanov 2013; Chandler 1962; Galbraith 2005, 2010, 2012, 2014; Greiner 1972. At Aalto U., FI. # Rp. PJ.
Krueger, Alan B., 1993, “How Computers have Changed the Wage Structure: Evidence from Microdata, 1984-1989,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Harvard/MIT, US, Feb93, 108(1):33-60. Used Current Population Survey data to examine whether workers who use a computer at work earn a higher wage rate than otherwise similar workers who do not use a computer at work. A variety of models were estimated to correct for unobserved variables that might be correlated with job-related computer use and earnings. Estimates suggested workers who use computers on their job earn 10 to 15 percent higher wages Expansion in computer use in the 1980s accounted for 1/3 to ½ of the increase in rate of return to education. Cited in Bartel et al 2003. At Princeton U. # Alt. PJ. A.
Lajoux, Alexandra R., 2005, The Art of M&A Integration, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 450 p. (Hardcover) (1st edn, 1997) Financial capital. Nearly half of today's executives attribute M&A failure to poor integration between merging businesses. Provided updated facts on integration of compensation plans, new FASB and GAAP accounting rules, strategies for merging IT systems and processes, etc. An essential ingredient in successful M&A was Jaques’ MOR-SOR relationship (1996). “... A constant hierarchy of values for employment work: market forces could not produce this consistent value hierarchy” (Jaques FEFE 1982, p. 80). Information Technology. Baruch (1st) HD 2746.5 .L35 1998. Rp. Bk.
Langlois, Richard N., 2003, “Cognitive Comparative Advantage and the Organization of Work: Lessons from Herbert Simon's Vision of the Future,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 24(2):167-187. (October 2002. UConn Department of Economics Working Paper No. 2002-20. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=353262 or DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.353262). On Simon’s 1960 chapter. One has to understand the quite different cognitive structures of humans and machines (including computers) in order to explain and predict the tasks to which each will be most suited. Due to cognitive comparative advantage humans have been “crowded into” tasks that call for the kinds of cognition for which humans have been equipped by biological evolution. These human cognitive abilities range from the exercise of judgment in situations of ambiguity and surprise to more mundane abilities in spatio-temporal perception and locomotion. Conversely, machines are “crowded into” tasks with a well-defined structure. This conclusion rests on a claim that, for what are broadly “economic” reasons, it will continue to make economic sense to create machines that are idiot-savants. (Discretion vs Prescribed.) Email: richard.langlois @ uconn.edu MS. PJ. A.
Lavin, James Kenneth, 2000, Models of Worker-Job Matching, Rules vs Discretion, and Employee Training vs. Labor Mobility, Ph.D. dissertation in Labor Economics and Business Administration, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 249 pages. UMI AAT 9961910. DAI-A 61/02, p. 714, Aug 2000. SAL or SPEC-COLL 3781 2000 L. Unpublished. A first test of the ‘high-performance work organization.’ Models the firm’s choice of rules versus worker discretion. Rules substitute for information search, communication and decision-making. Improvements in information technology (IT) and the falling relative wages of educated workers have raised the value of discretion. Findings indicate discretion-based workers work harder, so why do firm still use command-and-control? First, rules reduce human capital requirements. Second, rules facilitate coordination. Also, examines the Internal Labor Market Development Trap of low-mobility labor in many developing countries. Related PhD.
Lee, Heejin, and Jonathan Liebenau, 2000, "Temporal effects of information systems on business processes: Focusing on the dimensions of temporality", Accounting, Management, and Information Technologies, Pergamon, Elsevier, July, 10(3):157-185. Investigated how information systems affect the temporality of business processes in two organizations. Identified six dimensions (duration, sequence, temporal location, deadline, cycle, and rhythm) which could assess the temporal effects of information systems. They were used to describe and analyse temporal changes which resulted from implementing a new network. Cited Das; Hassard; Lee & Liebenau 1999. # Rp. PJ.
Levy, Frank and Richard J. Murnane, 2004, The New Division of Labor: How computers are creating the next job market, Princeton U. Press and Russell Sage Foundation, Princeton, NJ, & NY, NY, 174 P. ISBN: 0691124027, 9780691124025 As the current recession ends , many workers will not be returning to the jobs they once held -- those jobs are gone. Computers are enhancing productivity in many jobs even as they eliminate other jobs -- both directly and by sending work offshore. At greatest risk are jobs that can be expressed in programmable rules -- blue collar, clerical, and similar work that requires moderate skills and used to pay middle-class wages. The loss of these jobs leaves a growing division between those who can and cannot earn a good living in the computerized economy. Left unchecked, the division threatens the nation's democratic institutions. The nation's challenge is to recognize this division and to prepare the population for the high-wage/ high-skilled jobs that are rapidly growing in number -- jobs involving extensive problem solving and interpersonal communication. The authors describe how these skills can be taught and how our adjustment to the computerized workplace can begin in earnest. [Without knowledge of Strata of Capability and Levels of Work, their solution is wrong. Excellent analysis of the problem, but no cigar.] Cited in Autor et al 2006. Clio Bus, Bklyn, Grad Ctr, Baruch HD6331 .L48 2004. Sibl JBE 10-1664. MS. Bk.
Lilley, Simon, Geoffrey Lightfoot, and Paulo Amara, 2004, Representing Organization: Knowledge, Management, and the Information Age, Oxford U. Press, NY, NY, 224 p. The organizational impact of information technologies. This book examines the many ways in which actors, organizations and technologies are represented through these technologies thus bridging the gap between the abstractions of current theories of organization and those grounded on information systems. (Lots of stuff on new intellectualization.) Stressed requisite variety (Ashby) inside organizations with an emphasis on Nonaka and Takeuchi 1991, 1995. Jaques not cited. MS. Bk. UP. A.
Lindbeck, Assar, and Dennis J. Snower, 2000, “Multitask Learning and the Reorganization of Work: From Tayloristic to Holistic Organization,” Journal of Labor Economics, July 2000, 18(3):353-376. Examined the changes in the organization of work and the widening dispersion of wages - leading toward inequality. Frederick Taylor accentuated the trend begun by Adam Smith to divide work and workers into specialties. But this trend is in retreat and the retreat is accelerating. This also was due in part to the rising importance of the computer and the loss of the unskilled due to biased trade flows. Cited Aoki in Marglin 1990. MS. PJ. A.
Lomi, Alessandro, and Erik R. Larsen, eds., 2001, Dynamics of Organizations: computational modeling and organization theories, AAAI / MIT P:ress, Cambridge, MAA, US, 502 p. Preface by James G. March (9 pgs.). Intro by editors gives an academic European viewpoint of the IT field over the 20th century (34 pgs.) Selection of readings by European authors on the firm. Subtitle shows the IT and economics focus of the book on how to link the different levels of analysis. Information technology. Interesting. Jaques not cited. SIBL (br) 302.36 D. # Misc. Ch.
MacDuffie, John Paul, 1988, “The Japanese Auto Transplants: Challenges To Conventional Wisdom,” ILR Report, Cornell UP, Ithaca, NY, Fall 1988, 26(1):12-18. The next American auto crisis may make the last one look minor. The Japanese transplants were remarkably successful - by relying on USA workers, engineers, and managers - but not the conventional theories. Companies that have them include - Honda, Toyota, Nissan, Mazda, Mitsubishi, and Subaru/Isuzu. Japanese “humanware” works, even in the USA, and includes - reduced job classification, work teams, OTJ training, job rotation, QC circles, and specification of work procedures. Changes from Japan are new recruitment procedures, suggestion awards, shift procedures, and shift status differentials. The changes at the USA Big Three have been superficial. See Shimada 1985; Shimada and MacDuffie 1987. # MS. PJ. *****
Macintosh, Norman B., 1981, “A contextual model of information systems,” Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier Science Ltd., UK, 6(1)39-52. doi: 10.1016/0361-3682(81)90021-0. The social-engineering of accounting and information systems has not kept pace with the awesome advances on the technical side. Attempts, such as human information processing systems, have proven too narrow and research efforts now are called for which include both the psychology of the user and the program conditions of the task. This paper derive four distinct information systems styles — concise, cursory, diffuse, and elaborate - each of which is suited to a particular technology. Accounting and information systems should be designed to be congruent with the organizational context which they serve. Jaques & Brown not cited. Cited Grimes, Klein & Shull 1972; Emery & Trist 1968. NYPL SIBL JLL 85-51 pt. 5-6 (1980/81) Abstract only seen. At Queen's U., Kingston, Ont., Canada. # MS. PJ. A.
Marchall-Mies, Joanne C., Edwin A. Fleishman, Jennifer A. Martin, Stephen J. Zaccaro, Wayne A Baughman, and Michael L. McGee, 2000, “Development and evaluation of cognitive and metacognitive measures for predicting leadership potential,” Leadership Quarterly, Elsevier Science, Greenwich CT, Spring 2000, 11(1):135-153. This article describes the development of an online computer-based cognitive and metacognitive skill assessment battery (the MLE) designed for assessment and development of high-level executive officers. Confirmed the importance of skills for solving problems to high-level executive leadership, and metacognitive processing, and solution construction skills. Cited J&J 1987, 1990; Jacobs 1983. (Was 1996 working paper.) Rp. PJ. A.
McGrath, Rita Gunther, 1997, "A Real Options Logic for Initiating Technology Positioning Investments," Academy of Management Review, Oct., 22(4):974–996. 23p. DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1997.9711022113. Extended real options theory to technology positioning projects and specified how the relationship between boundary conditions and uncertainty influenced the value of a technology option, as well as the appropriate timing of its exercise. I also take a strategic perspective on uncertainty itself, concluding that option value can be amplified by investments to shift boundaries, ideally in ways that are idiosyncratic to the firm. Cited in Tiwana 2007. # MS. PJ. A.
McRae, Thomas W., 1976, Computers and Accounting, Wiley, 167 p. Described how to design information systems to fit the roles of executives who will use them. Aware of TSD and the time frames needed between financial and operating reports. Cited Dearden and Jaques p. 13, 15, 16. Cited Jaques 1967 (EP 2edn); Dearden 1968 (FinEx). Baruch HF 5657 .M226. (Not in earlier edition 1964 with a different title: Baruch HF5679 .M24.) At U. Bradford. Rp. Bk.
Mendelson, Haim, 2000, "Organizational Architecture and Success in the Information Technology Industry," Management Science, Information Technology Industry, US, Apr. 2000, 46(4):513-529. I define a measure of organizational architecture IQ and test whether it is related to financial and market success using data from the fast-moving information technology industry. Higher organizational IQ is associated with higher profitability (ROS, ROVA) and growth. This relationship is stronger in business environments that have faster clockspeeds. Cited MacDuffie 1995; Huselid 1995; Ichniowski et at 1997; Radner 1992. At Stanford U. # MS. PJ. A.
Meyer, Marshall W., 1975, “Leadership and Organizational Structure,” The American Journal of Sociology, Nov. 1975, 81(3):514-542. About the effects of leadership on organizations. But it is also about open systems versus closed systems. Leadership is largely ignored in modern organization theory. Selznick 1957 talks of leadership’s accountability rather than ‘style.’ Uncertainty is a function of the leadership and over time, rather than in the environment. As units grew, they lost control over some of their functions (e.g. computers). Meanwhile, the number of subunits and the levels of hierarchy grew (1966-1972). Turnover of leadership and resulting instability were crippling, a public confession of organization failure. (Leadership stability looms as the causal variable for organizational stability. The reverse was not the case.) Constraints from above (actually the degree of influence) cause leadership turnover and structural change. (Election or civil service tenure of the leader reduces instability.) Where leaders allow external uncertainties to intrude, then causal relationships appear. Where the leader protects the unit, they disappear. The vertical structure is unresponsive to environmental shifts. Internal administrative needs determine hierarchical structures. The number of divisions and sections are responsive to environmental demands. Where there is leadership turnover size becomes a visible fact. (Not otherwise.) Dependence of leadership on higher authority breeds instability. Therefore, systems that are more ‘closed’ to the environment are more stable and grow more, while those that are ‘open’ are more volatile and have lesser growth. (When he looked at leader variables rather than leaders, he found results.) Leadership roles (not leaders) and the social networks that embed them will have to be studied in the future. [An excellent study.] Cited Gouldner 1954, Selznick 1957, Terreberry 1968. At UC-Riverside (later Wharton). # MS. PJ. A.
Misch, Alexander, 2004, Adding a New Dimension to Knowledge Management: The Implications of Elliott Jaques’ Stratified Systems Theory for the Practice of Knowledge Management, MBA, Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS), University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa. A vital component is identification of information that is important to each hierarchical level of the organization to ensure the right information reaches the right individuals. Individuals must have requisite technical skills, requisite cognitive processing abilities, and the hierarchy must be structured appropriately. Data in the computer is stripped of context and this tends to destroy knowledge. Knowledge management is a human process. Shows how Jaques’ CIP approach integrates all seven “schools” of knowledge management described by Earl. Information technology. See Earl 2001; Visscher 2005 PhD. MA on RO.
Morris, Langdon, 1994, Managing the Evolving Corporation, Van Nostrand Reinhold (hdbk) and Wiley (pbk), New York, NY, 238 pages. Industrial Engineering. Chapter 3, Recognition and Response, is based on requisite organization. The key to success is now in managing the flow of information to enable all workers to make the best decisions themselves. Scrap command and control and implement recognition and response, focus on patterns of events, design real time information systems, and structure the work place to maximize responsiveness and collaboration among workers. Endorsed by Faith Gabelnick, Ph.D. Provost and Dean of the Faculty, Mills College. Steelcase North America was a client. Morris founded Strategic Planning Guild in San Ramon, California. Rp. Bk.
Murnane, Richard J., John B. Willett, and Frank Levy, 1995, “The Growing Importance of Cognitive Skills in Wage Determination,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, May 1995, 77(2):251-266. Basic cognitive skills had a larger impact on wages for 24-year olds in 1986 than in 1978. These were basic high school math skills, the ability to follow directions, and to interpret line groups, but not formal schooling. (Only about half of US high school graduates have mastered these skills per Mullis et al 1991.) For women this accounted for ALL of the increase associated with post-secondary education. The impact was smaller at age 20 than at age 24. Since 1970 there had been a 30% increase in within-group variation in earnings. (Increased employer demand for computer related skills and college attendance did play roles here. But the job market was shifting toward higher minimum cognitive skills.) Supports RO theory. Unaware of RO and Japanese. Cited Lillard 1977; Bound et al 1986. See Gifford 1928. At Harvard, Harvard, MIT. # MS. PJ. A.
Neef, Dale, 1999, “Making the case for knowledge management: the bigger picture,” Management Decision, UK, Jan-Feb, 37(1):72-78. Firms utilize knowledge management in reaction to employment upskilling, globalization, new computer-based communications technologies and new knowledge-based marketplace's increasing dominance. It promotes knowledge-sharing and cooperation among employees. The practices and policies give employees information and knowledge not only on how to enhance operational efficiency but also on how to innovate, recognize and react to new marketplace opportunities. Baruch online. MS. PJ. A.
Ojha, Abhoy K., 2002, “Trust as a Foundation for Strategic Alliances in Global Software Outsourcing,” Vikalpa, IIM, Ahmedabad, India, April-June, 27(2):3-12. Information Technology (IT). Provides guidelines for Indian software firms on how to build trust to move from short-term contractual relationships to long-term strategic alliances. Cited Das and Teng 1996. At IIM-Bangalore. # MS. PJ.
Pais, Arthur J., 2008, "India's innovative training produces astonishing workforce," India Abroad, NY, NY, US, 01 Aug 2008, 38(44):A29, a31. (2 p.) "In the '90s, India's information technology industry learned to compensate for the country's weak infrastructure and developed competencies that helped it become a top global player. Now several industries, including IT, have learned to overcome another major deficiency: India's education system," Vivek Wadhwa wrote in the report. "The best of Indian companies - and we focused on 24 across the country - have been picking up on the best practices know-how they effectively imported from foreign companies, especially American, that are outsourcing to India, and perfecting those techniques," he continued. "This is hardly novel - it's exactly the path Japan followed in the '70s and '80s. But while Japan concentrated on the industrial aspects and made innovative use of the American model, in India it is the human capital, in addition to the IT industries, that is not only revolutionizing the science and business scene, but also offering the world startling lessons." The report noted the Infosys Global Education Centre at Mysore can train 13,500 people at a time. "New recruits attend a 16-week boot camp which strengthens their technical, communications and management skills," it notes. "For its science recruits, (India's largest IT firm) Tata Consultancy Services provides seven months of training in computer programming, customer orientation and project management." Mentioned study at Duke U. Wadhwa et al 2008. # MS. Pro.
Phillips, Lawrence D., 1984, “Decision Support for Managers,” chapter 4 (p. 80-98) in Otway, Harry J., and Malcolm Peltu, eds., 1984, The Managerial Challenge of New Office Technology, Butterworths, London, UK, and Boston, MA, 246 p. [This essay is not in the 1983 version published by Ablex in US.] On discretionary vs rule-based activity, organization stratification, complexity at the top requires more than data, executive decision conferencing, and - human support is needed as well as computer-based support. 8 levels & TSD. Short, crisp, clear. Cited Jaques 1976, 1982 (FEFE); Humphreys 1984. Not in Clio. CUNY Baruch HF5548.2 .M295 1984. NYPL os JLD 85-510. Teach. # Rp. Ch.
Quinn, Jams Brian, Philip Anderson, and Sydney Finkelstein, 1996, "Leveraging Intellect," Academy of Management Executive, US, Aug96, 10(3):7-27. 21p. ISSN: 1079-5545. DOI: 10.5465/AME.1996.9704111471. With rare exceptions, the productivity of a modern corporation or nation lies more in its intellectual and systems capabilities than in its hard assets, raw materials, land, plant, and equipment [which are measured by accounting]. Intellectual and information processes create most of the value-added for firms in the large service industries, like software, medical care, communications, and education, which provide 79 percent of all jobs and 76 percent of all U.S. GNP. In manufacturing as well, intellectual activities, like R&D, process design, product design, logistics, marketing, marketing research, systems management, or technological innovation, generate the preponderance of value-added. McKinsey & Co. estimates that by the year 2000, 85 percent of all jobs in America and 80 percent of those in Europe will be knowledge-based. Yet few managements have systematically attacked the issues of developing, leveraging, and measuring the intellectual capabilities of their organizations. What are the keys to these processes? What light do research and best practice shed on this subject? Cited in Fields 2001 Related PhD. Information technology. At Amos Tuck School; University of Denver; Amos Tuck School, Dartmouth. # Misc. PJ.
Quinn, James Brian, Jordan J. Baruch, and Karen Anne Zien, 1996, “Software-Based Innovation,” The McKinsey Quarterly, NY, NY, US, 4(4):94-119. 26p. ISSN: 0047-5394. (orig. in Sloan Management Review) When Boeing's $170 million 777 aircraft went into production recently it was direct from software. By linking 2,800 engineering locations worldwide via 1,700 workstations, Boeing was able to pretest and optimize the structural elements and operating systems of each major component in the aircraft's four-million-part configuration. Software coordinated all supplier specifications to ensure precise fits, assembly tolerances, and materials compatibility, reducing prototype errors and rework costs by up to 90 percent. As Boeing demonstrates, software can eliminate many traditional steps in the innovation processes. In service industries, it enables employees to "jump the learning curve" for rapid product and process introductions by facilitating organizational learning. This article describes how by improving innovation quality, shortening cycle times, cutting costs, and lowering risks, software management has become the key to effective innovation and competitive advantage for many. (This is an adrenaline shot.) Cited in Fields 2001 Related PhD. Information technology. At Amos Tuck School, Dartmouth College; Creativity Laboratory, Cambridge, MA. # Misc. Pro.
Rangan, Subramanian, and Ron Adner, 2001, "Profits and the Internet: Seven Misconceptions," (cover story), MIT Sloan Management Review, Cambridge, MA, US, Summer2001, 42(4):44-53. Wd Cnt: 5064. ISSN: 15329194. Admonishing Internet businesses to "stop grabbing the land and start cultivating it," the authors explain why seven popular strategies are not the path to profitable growth. First-mover advantage, for example, gets too much credit for e-business success. Companies believe that they can lock in customers and trigger a winner-take-all dynamic, but there is no guarantee that those benefits will go to first movers (or anyone else). The allure of reach -- increasing the number of customer segments -- causes many companies to ignore fit, the coherence with which their activities reinforce one another. Another tempting growth strategy is to provide customer solutions, offering products or services that complement a company's core offering. But offering solutions can dilute a company's focus. When companies view the Internet as undifferentiated landscape, they are less able to distinguish the drivers of customer value and performance -- or the metrics to measure them (big data). Some companies see partner leverage as the secret of profitable growth but alignment of interest creates joint value. Another misconception is the belief that an Internet business will automatically be successful abroad. All businesses must accommodate local differences. But most dangerous is the belief that technology can substitute for strategy. Both at INSEAD, FR. # Misc. Pro.
Raynor, Michael E., 2007, “What is Corporate Strategy, Really?” Ivey Business Quarterly, University of Western Ontario, Canada, Nov/Dec 2007, 71(8):1-8. Based on his 2007 book. How do we manage strategic uncertainty? Sony had great success with the Play Station2 and the Walkman, yet bombed with the Betamax format. The strategy was the same. Commitment to one course of action in a capable hierarchy (as defined by Jaques) means - Win some, lose some. Inevitable - but we must manage Requisite Uncertainty. Microsoft continues to manage a portfolio of strategic options. J&J has used its hierarchical insights to shift the sales focus of its colonoscopes from “better scopes” for the doctor to “less pain” for the patient. Yet commitment exposes a firm to strategic risks. Information Technology. # Rp. Pro.
Rockart, John F., 1979, “Chief Executives Define Their Own Data Needs,” Harvard Business Review, Mar-Apr 1979, 57(2):81-93. What are the real information needs of the chief executive officer or any other top executive of a company? If presented in the form of computer printouts, often the reports submitted were what some subordinate thinks contain pertinent and useful information. Then again, if presented by word of mouth, the informal approach overlooks the kind of routine data (often computer-based) that should be supplied regularly to the top executive. This article examines the several methods of providing information to top management now in use, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each, and offers a new approach that focuses on individual managers and their hard and soft information needs. The discussion includes five illustrative examples from which the author draws some generalizations about the method and the chief executive's data needs. [From p. 89, ftnt 12.] Cited by Lynch and Cross 1991. Information Technology. IT. At MIT. # Misc. Pro.
Schadt, Eric E., Michael D. Linderman, Jon Sorenson, Lawrence Lee, and Garry P. Nolan, 2010, "Computational solutions to large-scale data management and analysis," Nature Reviews Genetics, Nature Publishing Group, Sep2010, 11(9):647-657. 11p. DOI: 10.1038/nrg2857. ISSN: 14710056. The astonishing rate of current data generation by low-cost, high-throughput technologies in genomics is being matched by that of other technologies, such as real-time imaging and mass spectrometry-based flow cytometry. Success will depend on our ability to properly interpret the large-scale, high-dimensional data sets that are generated, which in turn requires us to adopt advances in informatics. Here we discuss how we can master the different types of computational environments that exist — such as cloud and heterogeneous computing — to successfully tackle our big data problems. At Pacific Biosciences, Cal.; Computer Systems Lab., Cal.; Stanford U., Cal., US. # Misc. PJ.
Schlender, Brent, 2004, “The New Soul of a Wealth Machine,” Fortune, New York, NY, April 5, 2004, 149(7):102-105, 108, 110 (5 pg). When thinking of significant innovations of the past 50 years, an innovation that doesn’t come readily to mind is the modern corporation. The corporation, like any human institution, can be corrupted and abused. But it’s all too easy to overlook the genuine creativity required to design and run an organization employing tens of thousands of people to consistently and efficiently develop, improve, manufacture, and deliver. Peter Drucker, often called the father of modern management, contends that the modern corporation first came into its own in the 1920s and 1930s, as professional managers replaced founders and the scions of founders at the helms of large firms. Say what you like about the stunning growth, immense profits, and magical inventions of Information Technology juggernauts like Intel or Microsoft or Cisco – what makes such companies truly special is their leaders’ organizational ingenuity. Cited by Hoare 2006. Misc. Pro.
Schwarz, Gavin M., and David M. Brock, 1998, “Waving Hello or Waving Good-bye? Organizational Change in the Information Age,” International Journal of Organizational Analysis, MCB UP Ltd., Bradford, UK, Emerald Online, 6(1):65-90. Extant organization theory focuses largely on technologically-induced transformation. This paper argues that this focus is inappropriate. With the proliferation of information technology in the workplace, change literature propounds a particular view of the organization: a lean, flat, and networked organization. This paper indicates that the reality of change is far more restrictive than has largely been previously acknowledged. We propose that predicted changes are not as clear cut as certain proponents would have us believe. Hierarchical organizational forms can coexist with a networked organization. [Obvious to all except academics.] (From Schwarz’s Interesting 2001 Queensland PhD.) Cited Jaques 1990. Brock at Auckland; Schwarz at Queensland. MS. PJ.
Sewell, Graham, 1998, “The Discipline of Teams: The control of team-based industrial work through electronic and peer surveillance,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Ithaca, NY, June 1998, 43(2):397-428. An unexpected, new model of industrial labor process control that maintains discipline under conditions of teamwork is considered. The model examines how work monitoring undertaken using management information systems interacts with the peer-group scrutiny that goes on in teams. These represent vertical and horizontal forms of surveillance, respectively, creating the conditions for a hybrid or "chimerical" mode of workplace control to operate. The build-up of trust, a la Alan Fox (and Jaques), is seen as undermined. Unaware of Jaques. MS. PJ. A.
Sheil, B. A., 1993, "Coping With Complexity", Information Technology & People, MCB UP Ltd., Bradford, UK; West Linn, OR, US; 1(4):295-320. A compelling case must identify the attributes of information technology which distinguish it from other, less disruptive, technical innovations. This analysis makes the basic cognitive skills, such as procedural reasoning, underlying any effective use of information processing devices a topic of central concern. However, neither the difficulty nor the importance of these skills are widely appreciated. Most techniques to facilitate the use of complex, programmed devices are simply incommensurate in scope with the problem. A Gendanken analysis of programming is advanced to indicate why this is so and to serve as the basis for an agenda of cognitive science research. At Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, Cal., US. MS. PJ.
Shepard, Jon M., 1971, Automation and Alienation. A Study of Office and Factory Workers, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 163 p. Factory workers were covered in his 1968 PhD, and office workers in his research at MIT post-doc. Showed that the extreme fears of managers regarding alienation of the workforce due to the introduction of the computer were unfounded. Noted the upgrading effect of computer monitoring, not manual. Jaques not cited. Cited Blauner 1960, 1964; Shepard PhD 1968; Turner & Lawrence 1965; Aiken & Hage 1966; Corina 1960; Morse & Weiss 1955; Worthy 1950. City,GC HD5548.8 .S47. Schw JLD 72-3616 (SASB). Rp. Bk. UP. A.
Sheridan, John H., 1997, “Andy Grove: building an information age legacy,” Industry Week/IW, Penton Pubs., US, 12/15/97, 246(23):64-66, 75-77. Word Cnt: 3765. ISSN: 00390895. Profile of Andy Grove, CEO of Intel Corp., as the organization and process builder among the three founders. He is also a patient teacher. [PERT is level 4 thinking.] Thinks projects through to the execution and commercialization stages and lauched initiatives through new apps and advanced software to capture future markets. Always he is on the lookout for 'strategic inflection points' that indicate the customer has shifted or you are waiting too long to make the shift. Senior executives have to tolerate chaos and let go of control for the firm to survive. Two of his bestsellers: `High Output Management' and 'Only the Paranoid Survive.' # MS. Pro.
Shimada, Haruo, 1985, “The Perceptions and the Reality of Japanese Industrial Relations,” chapter three (p. 42-68) in Thurow, Lester, ed., 1985, The Management Challenge: Japanese Views, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 237 p. The reality is lifetime employment, length-of-service wage system (nenko), and enterprise unionism were built up during the 1950s and 1960s. Even though they are called the “Three Sacred Treasures” of Japanese industrial relations, there is nothing ‘ancient’ or ‘mystic’ or inherited about them. Such stereotypical perceptions have been spread by Ezra Vogel, Pascale and Athos, and Ouchi. Their real purpose was toaccumulate human capital within the firm. He has Age-Wage Profiles (on p. 50-51) from his 1981 book (1974 Related PhD) showing the similarity of Japan to the US and the power of technology and organizational factors. He speculates that enterprise unions with joint consultation (70 percent) and QC circles (more than one million participants) are likely unique to Japan. (He lacked knowledge about their sources.) Not unique is an internal labor market. (Does not mention Glacier Metals or Brown or Jaques but puts the time absolutely dead-on - and at both ends: UK to Japan to US. See Wright 1997 for Moreton/ Glacier/ UK-to-Japan in the late 1960s and see Shimada and MacDuffie 1986 for Japan-to-MIT/ US.) Comments by Thurow. (This is as close to proof as I am likely to get.) [Tatamae vs. honne.] NYPL Hum JLD 85-1640 (HSSL). CUNY Baruch, Grad Ctr, City. NYPL Hum JLD 85-1640 (HSSL). Clio os HD70 .J3 M264 1985. # MS. Ch.
Shimada, Haruo, 1986, “Industrial Relations and ‘Humanware’: a Study of Japanese Investments in Automobile Manufacturing in the United States,” MIT-Japan Science and Technology Program, Cambridge, MA, September 1986, 36 p., MITJSTP Series; 86-04. Published with same title as NTIS Report: MIT JSTP-86-04, 1992, 42p. NTIS Accession No.: PB95134730. ($30). In the face of the large and growing presence of Japanese operations in the United States, has the interest of American automakers in Japanese production methods intensified? What can American producers learn from the Japanese which could improve their own competitive position? Efforts are being made to learn from Japanese experience both directly and indirectly through joint-ventures, exchange of information and other means. Will American corporations learn something from these efforts? And if they do, which lessons will be most useful for their purposes? These are some of the intriguing questions which motivated this study. See Shimada and MacDuffie 1986. See Shimada 1988. See Krafcik 1988 for substitution of “lean” for “humanware.” See Kenney and Florida 1991. MIT Institute Archives & Dewey Library Basemt Q180.J3.M22 no. 86-04. See MacDuffie 1988. # MS. Rep. UP. A.
Shimada, Haruo, and John Paul MacDuffie, 1986, “Industrial Relations and ‘Humanware’: Japanese Investments in Automobile Manufacturing in the United States,” MIT, Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA, International Motor Vehicle Program (IMVP), Sloan Working Paper No. 1855-87, 104 p. (Unpublished.) Briefing Paper for the First Policy Forum, 1987, IMVP, MIT. (Unpublished.) [Both built on Shimada 1986.] The Japanese MNE’s strategic goals for high market growth and profitability depend on producing premium quality cars at lower prices. HRM policies were designed to effectively exploit their technology and ensure intensive human control of the process by developing multi-skilled workers in teams who rotated across jobs and participated in continual improvement. Thus HRM focused on tight screening of applicants, high job security, continual OTJ training, broad job structure, work teams, job rotation (per Beechler and Yang 1994). Used the term "fragile/robust." Per Paul Adler, they concluded the Toyota production system was “fragile” since it was dependent on human motivation, capabilities and production requirements. [No, fragile it wasn’t. These things were taken into account when it was designed.] Per Endo 1994, they noted no Japanese auto firm had yet introduced the satei personal assessment system into their US plants. Cited by Som 2002 IIM-A PhD. See Shimada 1986 & 1988. See Krafcik 1988 for substitution of “lean” for “humanware.” MIT Institute Archives & Dewey Library – Basement HD28.M414 no. 1855-87. (See Peter Kolesar files at Columba. No. 1855-88.) See MacDuffie 1988. # MS. Rep. UP. A.
Shimada, Haruo, 1988, Hyuman Wea no Keizai gaku: america no naka no Nihon kigyo, Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo, Japan, 287 p. (In Japanese only: The Economics of ‘Humanware:’ Japanese Corporations in the U.S. [I kid you not.]) [Where does the term come from?] See Shimada 1986; Shimada and MacDuffie 1986. Cited in Aoki 1988, 1994, p. 116; Eto 2003; MacLeod and Malcomson 1988, 1989. CU East Asian HD2785 .S54 1988 D. Bk.
Shimada, Haruo, 1991, “‘Humanware’ Technology and Industrial Relations,” chapter (p. 459-470) in OECD, 1991, Technology and Productivity: the challenge for economic policy, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, FR; [Washington, D.C. : OECD, distributor], 588 p. Papers from a 1989 conference. This is Shimada’s most concise and eloquent description of ‘human ware’ and the interaction with hard- and soft-. SIBL os JBF 92-1179. Clio os HC110 .L3 T44 1991g. CUNY Baruch HD57 .T33 1991. Teach. # MS. Ch.
Shimada, Haruo, 1993, “Japanese Management of Auto Production in the United States: An Overview of ‘Humanware Technology,’” chapter 2 (p. 23-42) in Sengenberger, Werner, and Duncan C. Campbell, eds., 1993, Lean Production and Beyond: Labour Aspects of a New Production Concept, International Institute for Labour Studies, Geneva, SZ, 133 p. (A chapter in: Yamamura, Kozo, ed., 1989, Japanese Investment in the United States: Should we be concerned?, Society for Japanese Studies, Seattle, WA, US, p. 183-205.) Mixed reactions in America suggest a dichotomy between the relatively successful experience of technology transfer to production workers at the workshop and the somewhat problematical managerial, social, political, and cultural interactions over humanware. Cited in T. A. Kochan 1992 (!). Jaques not cited. Not in CUNY, Clio, Worldcat. NYPL os JBG 94-56. # MS. Ch.
Simon, Herbert A., 1973, "Applying Information Technology To Organization Design," Public Administration Review, U. of Chicago, US, May/Jun73, 33(3):268-278. 11p. ISSN: 0033-3352. Research on "human relations" in organizations turned attention in organizational design to the linkage between the individual as organization member and the pattern of organizational activity. Good design requires bringing the desired ends into effective relation with the available means. To design effective decision-making organizations, one must understand the structure of the decisions to be made; and the decision-making tools at one’s disposal, both human and mechanical - men and computers. Corporate and public decision-making processes are immensely more sophisticated and rational than they were in past eras with consideration of interactions and tradeoffs among alternatives and consequences, and embedding fragments in comprehensive models. Cited in Fields 2001 Related PhD. At Carnegie-Mellon U. # Misc. PJ.
Smith, H. Jeff, Mark Keil, and Gordon Depledge, 2001, “Keeping Mum as the Project Goes Under: Toward an Explanatory Model,” Journal of Management Information Systems, Sharpe, Armonk, NY, US, Fall2001, 18(2):189-227. The problem of 'runaway' information systems (IS) projects can be exacerbated by the reluctance of organizational members to transmit negative information concerning a project and its status. IS project success is the exception rather than the norm. Top executives must know the actual status of a project to make any decision on it. If they are lied to, the project may blow up in a costly way. Reporting negative information must be encouraged in the incentive system. Jaques not cited. # Refu. PJ.
Streeck, Wolfgang, 1996, “Lean Production in the German Automobile Industry: A test case for convergent theory,” chapter 5 (p. 138-170) in Berger, Suzanne, and Ronald Dore, eds., National Diversity and Global Capitalism, Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, NY, 387 p. Streeck began with a highly critical book review of Womack et al 1991. (The MIT authors’ focus on an engineering approach to human resources and rendered their version of Japanese ‘humanware’ rigid, controlling, and top-down.) Page 161 cited in Aoki 2001 (p. 113), who noted the parallels with Koike [and Wilfred Brown] on skill overlaps both horizontal and vertical, and on works councils in Japan and Germany [and the U.K., not the U.S.]. Median tenure for all employees: Japan 8.2 years; Germany 7.5 years; U.S. 3.0 years (OECD 1993). But U.S. skill levels were low, while they were high in Japan and Germany. German workers also had portable high skills, co-determination, and work autonomy: They set the work-rules and could leave the firm. The concept of public and private spheres [company and employee] was entirely different between East and West. LP faced serious skepticism in Germany. [This chapter was my key to the German literature on lean manufacturing and Japan. See p. 163-4 cited: P. Auer 1994, S. Roth 1992, H. Neumann 1993, L. Turner 1992, U. Jurgens 1993, U. Jurgens and P. Cooke 1993, W. Sengenberger and D. Campbell eds 1993, & M. Sako 1990. Not herein.] See Maccoby 1997 for a similar critique from a U.S. perspective. Streeck was at the Max Planck Institute for Gesellschaftsforschung in Cologne U. Clio Barnard, Business-out, Lehman Lib. Res HF1414 .N37 1996; CUNY: Baruch, Hunter Mn, GCtr. NYPL SIBL JBE 96-2242. # MS. Ch.
Thomas, Peter, 1993, "Do Users Get What They Want?" SIGOIS Bulletin, Special Interest Group on Office Information Systems, Association for Computing Machinery, NY, NY, US, December 1993, Special Issue, 14(2):27-34. CU07141705. DOI: 10.1145/170846.170858. Papers from 1993 Conference on Office Information Systems. A description of levels in SST. Thanks to E. Forrest Christian. Cited Rowbottom and Billis 1977; Riddick/Dodd/Fitzgerald 1991, 1993. NYPL os. Clio os HF5547.5 .A1 S53. Baruch, JJay, GC, Htr Mn., City Sci/Eng. At Brunel U., UK. # Rp. PJ.
Thompson, Marc, and Paul Heron, 2005, “The difference a manager can make: organizational justice and knowledge worker commitment,” International Journal of Human Resource Management, Routledge, UK, Mar2005, 16(3):383-404. The quality of the employment relationship is argued to be central to knowledge workers' commitment, which in turn supports knowledge creation. However, little research has explored how justice perceptions shape the quality of the employment relationship and the consequences for commitment. Using a sample of 429 R&D workers from across six science-based and technology-based firms, this paper explores the three-way interaction of procedural and interactional justice with the psychological contract to predict knowledge worker commitment. The results suggest that the perceived quality of the relationship between knowledge workers and their manager can make a positive difference in the context of breach of the psychological contract and this in turn can help maintain levels of commitment important for knowledge creation. [This ‘empirical’ study may be made of sand dunes.] Information technology. Cited in Financial Times Oct 10, 2005, p. 9. See Hughes 2001, Poole 1990. At Oxford. SIBL onsite, online. # MS. PJ. *****
Travica, Bob, 1998, “Information Aspects of New Organizational Designs: Exploring the Non-Traditional Organization,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science, New York, NY, Nov 1998, 49(13):1224-1244. Our knowledge of these alternative designs is still meager. This particularly applies to their information aspects, such as the role of information technology (IT), and exchanges of information and knowledge. A sample was drawn from the public accounting industry. The study discovered a strong positive relationship between the amount of IT usage and non-traditional dimensions. The notion of relationship primarily rests on the relationships IT forms with centralization and formalization (both negative), and trust and communication beyond team boundaries (both positive). Hierarchy appears to be the most resilient dimension of the traditional organization. At Indiana, Library School. Cited Lash 1988, Tetlock 1983, Blunt 1989, S. Clegg 1990, Jaques 1989. MS. JP.
Venda, Valery F., and Hal W. Hendrick, 1994, “Ergodynamics and macroergonomics in analysis of decision-making efficiency and complexity,” International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, USA, July-Sept. 1994, 6(3):253-274. The principles of macroergonomics and the laws of ergodynamics are reviewed. The theories of mutual adaptation and transformation dynamics are presented as a complex basis of the ergodynamics, and they are offered as paradigms for macroergonomic evaluation and design of sociotechnical or human-machine-environment decision-making systems (HMES). Different cognitive strategies were used in the course of long-term training and in short-term decision making in emergencies. Instead of a traditional static approach, the analysis of transformations in technologies, management structures, and work skills were needed. A broader view of complex multilevel system leads to success. Presentation of the theories of mutual adaptation (human and computer) and transformation-dynamics; Both systems have to be jointly optimized, not one or the other. The process of mutual adaptation was being applied at Northern Telecom Canada, Ltd., including a concrete methodology. See humanware. Venda at U. Manitoba. Hendrick at USC. This came out of 1993 presentn. See Hendrick 1986 Presentn. Cited HHS 1961; Barrif and Lusk 1977; Jaques 1976; Stamp 1981; Hendrick 1979, 1990. Not in CUNY. NYPL SIBL JSM 93-242 v.6 (1994). # Rp. PJ.
Veryard, Richard, 1997, “Quality Assurance of Distributed Software Components”, 13 p., AQuIS 96: Third International Conference on Achieving Quality in Software (IFIP WG 5.4) (Florence: January 1996). Online at veryard.com. Many claims have been made for the benefits of software reuse, in terms of enhanced quality as well as productivity. But whatever reliability, flexibility, and efficiency it may have it may be reused for unpredicted purposes in unpredicted contexts. Furthermore, an open distributed world may separate the software developer from the publisher, and the software librarian from the user. From these premises we argue that responsibility for the quality of reusable software components cannot be taken by the developer (or development organization) alone, but must be shared between developer and other agents. Recent work in enterprise modelling for open distributed processing has led to new techniques for modelling responsibilities across organizational boundaries, and these techniques are introduced here as a way of determining and clarifying effective structures for the quality assurance of reusable software components across distributed networks. Cited Roger Crane 1986; Dobson & Strens 1994; Texas Instruments 1990. # Ru. Conf.
Wadhwa, Vivek, Una Kim de Vitton, and Gary Gereffi, 2008, "How the Disciple Became the Guru: Is It Time for the U.S. to Learn Workforce Development from Former Disciple India?" School of Engineering, Duke University, NC, US, 81 p. Working paper. Available online at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1170049 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1170049 In the '90s, India's Information Technology (IT) industry learned to compensate for the country's weak infrastructure and developed competencies that helped it become a top global player. Now several industries, including IT, have learned to overcome India's education system. They have adapted and perfected western practices in workforce training and development, and now take workers with poor education and weak technical skills and turn them into highly productive technical specialists and managers able to compete on the world stage. Based on interviews with the CEOs, HR executives, R&D managers, and employees of 24 leading Indian companies. Leading businesses in India have developed highly advanced, innovative practices and that these are allowing industries in India to become globally competitive and grow rapidly. Workforce development has become a strategic priority and is a central occupation of their executives. The human-resource function has increased in importance, shifting from support to a key strategic role. The results are evident in their ability to cultivate and retain workers and in the remarkable growth rates they are achieving. The lesson is that workforce training and development may be essential to maintaining a competitive edge. No footnotes. # MS. Pamph.
Walker, Gordon, 1985, "Network position and cognition in a computer software firm," Administrative Science Quarterly, US, March, 30(1):103-130. ISSN: 00018392. Examined the relationship between differences in cognition among the members of a software firm and the position a member occupied in the network of task relationships in the organization. Cognition was measured through judgments about means-ends associations relevant to software product success [L3]. Network position was found to be a stronger and more stable predictor of differences in cognition than the type of function an individual had and the type of product worked on. Both tenure in the industry and tenure in the firm also were found to have strong and stable effects. Jaques not cited. Cited in Isabella 1990. At MIT, US. # MS. PJ. A.
Warner, Timothy N., 1987, “Information Technology as a Competitive Burden,” Sloan Management Review, Cambridge, MA, Fall, 29(1):55-61. Reprinted 1990 as a chapter in Management Information Systems: Readings and Cases, Harper Collins, pp. 69-78. An elaborate IT system is a signal of inefficient production. Firms should use IT only after exhausting continual improvement and system reorganization (TQM orientation). One key deficiency: blame the computer for stockouts and excess inventory buffers: no one is accountable. MRP/ERP is expensive, rigid and error-prone. (PS: see van Clieaf - does IT contribute to firm’s failure to earn cost of capital? See John Deere example.) Contrast with Chan and Heide 1992. Cited by Floyd and Wooldridge 1996. Unaware of Jaques. Warner was at York U. Refu. Pro.
Wickens, Peter, 1993, “Steering the Middle Road to Car Production,” Personnel Management, Blackwell, London, UK, June 1993, 25(6):24-38. This article focused on the aftermath of the Swedish blow-out on STS in car production. It was far MORE expensive to build cars in the STS way using “dock assembly” than in the Japanese or the “lean” way. Saab closed the Malmo plant in 1991. Volvo closed Kalmar and Uddevalla in 1993. (See Maccoby 1981, chapters 6 & 7.) Author used Jaques’ terms “prescribed” and “discretionary” to describe the two elements of work. Standard procedures have been held by engineers a la Taylorism These procedures have now been shifted and are held, along with change and improvement, by the production people. Ergonomics of manufacturing, or people care, is a key to the building and design processes. Cited Womack et al 1990. Baruch Percls 3rd fl., York. (Not JJay.) SIBL *ZAN-B173 v. 8-11 (1976-79) [others] - and online access at SIBL. Did not cite Jaques or Brown or Glacier. Director of personnel and information systems at Nissan. See Adler and Cole 1993, Berggren 1994, Krier 2006 presentation; humanware. Teach. # Rp. Pro. *****
Wong, Simon C. H., 1995, “Management Decision Support Systems: From Theory to Practice,” Educational Management Administration and Leadership, UK, April 1995, 23(2):122-134. Argued that the use of computer-based systems for management decision support has increased rapidly in recent years. The possibilities of the use of computers to support effective educational administration using such an approach were illustrated using practical examples. Cited Rohrbaugh and Eden 1990 (SST, Jaques). Wong at Hong Kong Baptist University. # Rp. PJ.
Woods, David D., 1985, "Cognitive Technologies: The Design of Joint Human-Machine Cognitive Systems," AI Magazine, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org), US, Winter 1985, 6(4):86-92. This article explores the implications of one type of cognitive technology, techniques and concepts to develop joint human-machine cognitive systems, for the application of computational technology by examining the joint cognitive system implicit in a hypothetical computer consultant who outputs some form of problem solution. This analysis reveals some of the problems can occur in cognitive system design - e.g., machine control of the interaction, the danger of a responsibility-authority double-bind, and the potentially difficult and unsupported task of filtering poor machine solutions. Applied cognitive psychology must provide models, data, and techniques to help designers build human-machine elements of a joint cognitive system. RAEW. See Bhidé 2010. Information Technology (IT). # Misc. PJ.
Wooler, Charles Clifford, 1972, “The Effect Of The Computer On Authority And Decision-making Roles In Organisations,” MBA, dissertation in Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of the Witwatersrand (UWITS), Johannesburg, South Africa, 77 pages. In English. NRF Nexus Project 744153. Management Library Thesis HF 5548.2 WOO. Scopus. Unpublished. Used T.T. Paterson's model to measure the impact of the state of computerization on the system of organization of twenty bank branch managers along two critical axes, i.e. authority and decision making. The level of authority was found to be associated with the system of organization of the level of decision making was associated mainly with the state of computerization on only to a lesser extent with the system of organization, it was found that the authority of a branch manager tends to be sapiental, rather than structural, when the branch operates under either organistic systems of organization computerisation had little effect. Related MA.
Wooler, Stuart, 1982, “A Decision Aid for Structuring and Evaluating Career Choice Options,” The Journal of the Operational Research Society, The Practice of Decision Analysis, Palgrave Macmillan Journals, London, UK, April 1982, 33(4):343-351. A decision aid for helping ICI personnel in assessing future career options is described. Its rationale is to help users clarify their own thinking about possible careers, by raising their awareness of the current subjectively relevant factors (or attributes) for assessment of careers and by encouraging them to generate a more complete and realistic set of attributes. Career options can then be evaluated using this modified attribute set. A computer program, MAUD, is employed for structuring and evaluating options, and the design of a simple aid, HISTRA, which helps users to generate a more complete understanding of the career decision problem and to clarify relative importances of conflicting attributes, is described. Cited Humphreys 1980 (3); MAUD. At Brunel. # Rp. PJ. A.
Xu, Xianzhong Mark, 1997, Information Systems for Strategic Intelligence Support, Ph.D., thesis in Business Administration and Information Science, Open University Business School, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK (length unknown). O.U. Library Classmark: 658.403 XU. Author no. M7164537. Not available from UMI (date 1998 in error). DAI-C 60/02, p. 251, Summer 1999. Theses # 47-10457. BLDSC no.DX202525. So far, information systems have failed to provide managers with strategic-oriented information. Strategic information is derived only from the senior managers’ individual strategic vision, knowledge and judgement. The content and the meaning of the information were of greatest interest to senior managers. An external vision was of utmost strategic importance, but it was balanced with internal monitoring. Vision illumination and knowledge creating were critical to organization-wide intelligence for scanning, refining, and supporting (SRS). A knowledge-based intelligence system can enhance senior managers’ strategic information acquisition and the organization’s intelligence capability and sensibility. Unaware of Jaques. Cited Duncan 1972 Related PhD. Related PhD
Yakura, Elaine K., 2001, “Billables: The Valorization of Time in Consulting,” American Behavioral Scientist, Sage Pubs., Mar 2001, 44(7):1076-1095. This article described the transformation of time into money in information technology consulting work. Using data collected through participant observation, this article illustrated the valorization of time, whereby time was transformed into units of value, known as billables. Examined breaches and ruptures of individual norms such as padding, discounting, and bidding wars. Billables were used by the firms as a performance measure and as a form of organizational control of work. But the shifting context of each hour varied the worth of each consultant’s work. The evidence presented here suggests that time-based measures of work and value can be somewhat arbitrary. [The market was not how work valorization was measured.] Jaques not cited. At Michigan State. MS. PJ.
Yammarino, Francis J., Shelley D. Dionne, Jae Uk Chun, and Fred Dansereau, 2005, “Leadership and Levels of Analysis: A state-of-the-science review,” The Leadership Quarterly, Greenwich CT, December 2005, 16(6):879-919. The Leadership Quarterly Yearly Review of Leadership. A comprehensive, qualitative, narrative review of the leadership literature on levels-of-analysis issues. Focused on conceptual and empirical publications (books, book chapters, and journal articles) over the last 10 years in 17 areas of leadership research. Reviewed and coded 348 journal articles and book chapters on theory formulation, construct/variable measurement, data analytic techniques, and inference drawing. Relatively few leadership studies address levels-of-analysis issues appropriately. A great resource!!! Cited J. G. Hunt, Jaques, Jacobs, Zaccaro, among many others. MS. PJ. A.