Citations for publications related to work levels in the not-for-profit sector

by Ken Craddock
Senior Fellow of the Global Organization
Design Society, and the society's Bibliographer, 
Research Advisory and
Member of the Editorial Board

formerly Columbia University
City College of New York



Major books: McMorland, Judith, and Ljiljana Erakovic, 2010, “Case study of a New Zealand not-for-profit organization – an evolutionary and Levels of Work perspective on the emergence of governance/management relationships,”

Does use Elliot Jaques’s theory

Carney, Marie, 2004, “Middle manager involvement in strategy development in not-for profit organizations: the director of nursing perspective – how organizational structure impacts on the role,” Journal of Nursing Management, Blackwell, UK, Jan. 2004, 12(1):13–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2004.00388.x.  A series of 25 semi-structured interviews with Directors of Nursing in not-for-profit health service organizations.  The interviews got grounded theory analysis.  Structure does impact on the role, conferring both positive benefits and negative consequences.  Two predominating structure models were discussed and analysed.  Cited Jaques 1989, 1990; Nonaka 1988. Based on Mary T. Carney Related PhD 2002.  At Nursing & Midwifery, U. Coll. Dublin, IE.  E-mail: [email protected]  #  D.  PJ.  

Billis, David, 1991, “The Roots of Voluntary Agencies: A Question of Choice,” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Sage, 20:57-69. Presented a conceptual framework for exploring the development of voluntary organizations.  The first part of the theory distinguishes business and public bureaucracies from associations and defines the agency as a hybrid or ambiguous organization.  The second part of the theory analyzes the system of "roots" of voluntary agencies, which is defined as the relationship between implicit welfare policy, financial resources, and human resources.  Severe imbalances among operational explanations, root system, and governing body can lead to many familiar problems.  Cited Brown and Jaques 1965.  #  Rp.  PJ.

Billis, David, 1992, “Planned Change in Voluntary and Government Social Service Agencies,” Administration in Social Work, Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY, US, 16(3/4):29-44.  The article discusses the comparison of planned change in voluntary organizations and change in government welfare bureaucracies.  The basic structure of government bureaucracy was analyzed using the ABC division of roles.  A stands for political association, B being the bureaucracy of paid staff, and C as the clients or consumers.  Bureaucracy was then compared to associations, which are independent groups that have their own purposes and public identity.  The analysis led to the conclusion that voluntary agency is an association that employs paid staff to deliver operational service.  Moreover, it was determined that reaching the type of change that can be implemented differs in the two settings.  Cited Billis 1980, 1984, 1984, 1989; Lipsky 1980; Rowbottom 1977; Rowbottom and Billis 1987; Jaques 1976; Harris 1989.  Hunter SW, JJay.  Hard.  At London School of Economics.  Rp.  PJ.

Billis, David, and Margaret Harris, 1992, “Taking the Strain of Change: U.K. Local Voluntary Agencies Enter the Post-Thatcher Period,” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Jossey-Bass Pub., San Francisco, CA, US, Fall 1992, 21(3):211-225.  This article draws together the findings from a program of research undertaken in the UK during the decade 1980-1990 ("the“Thatcher period"). ”This article explores changes in the work and funding of local voluntary and nonprofit agencies.  Comparative international research along these lines is urged (UK vs. US).  Cited Jaques 1976.  8 MA degrees from Brunel and 4 MSc degrees from LSE were cited.  #  D.  PJ.

Billis, David, 1996, “Who Cares Whether Your Organisation Survives?” chapter 14 (p. 222-236) in Billis, David, and Margaret Harris, eds., 1996, Voluntary Agencies: challenges of organisation and management, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, 255 p.  Conference proceedings. Five systems must co-exist in equilibrium inside a voluntary sector organisation for it to avoid slipping into a state of crisis – the explanatory, governance, human resource, funding, and internal accountability systems.  Rifts between these systems can be avoided – but this requires effort, improved communications, and discussions.  But the failure to develop a theory will lead to the dominance of market theories – and a survival crisis.  Brown not cited.  Cited Jaques 1976; Rowbottom 1977; Billis 1984; Weitzel and Jonsson 1989.  Not in Clio, CUNY.  NYPL Sibl os  JBD 96-881.  #  Rp.  Ch.

Harris, Margaret, 1996, “Do We Need Governing Bodies?” chapter 10 (p. 149-165) in Billis, David, and Margaret Harris, eds., 1996, Voluntary Agencies: challenges of organisation and management, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK, 255 p.  Conference proceedings.  Used Brown’s distinction of the  ‘manifest’ organization to explore the need in a voluntary sector firm of a management committee when they have been devalued and eroded.  Jaques not cited.  Cited W. Brown 1960/1965.  Not in Clio, CUNY.  NYPL Sibl os  JBD 96-881.  #  Rp. Ch.

Harris, Margaret, 1998, Organizing God's Work, challenges for churches and synagogues, Macmillan, Houndmills, UK.  An examination of four congregations in the UK, comparing them for commonalities.  There were Roman Catholic, black-led Pentecostal, Anglican and a reform synagogue.  Harris examined four themes: purposes and goals, roles and role relationships, organizational change, and denominational institutions.  Cited Billis 1984 and Silverman 1993 (p. 42).  Aston library: 361.8, HAR.  Union Theological Seminary in NYC has it also.  This was her Related 1995 PhD thesis at LSE.  (Bibliography not examined. )  MS.  Bk.

Hayes, Treasa, 1993, Management Control and Accountability in Irish Voluntary Organisations: an exploratory study, Ph.D., thesis in Management and Business Finance (B9e), London School of Economics, University of London, London, UK.  Theses # 44-0732. Published as a book: 1996, Management Control and Accountability in Nonprofit/ Voluntary Organisations, Avebury, Aldershot, UK, 281 pages.  This dissertation is concerned in particular with management, control and accountability in Irish voluntary organisations and focused on 10 that were affiliated with the Union of Voluntary Organisations for the Handicapped, a major umbrella group in the Irish voluntary sector.  It shows environmental and organisational characteristics that can create particular demands for management in the voluntary sector that differ from those encountered in other sectors.  It also shows how these characteristics can impinge on the implementation of control and external accountability in voluntary organisations.  An outline model was formulated identifying these characteristics.  Cited Anthony, Dearden and Bedford 1984; Billis 1984, 1987, 1989, 1992, 1986, 1990; Harris 1987; Harris and Billis 1985.  Very close.  Related PhD.  A.

Hemman, Eileen Ann, 1998, Leadership Profiles of Senior Nurse Executives (Stratified Systems), Ed.D., dissertation in Health Sciences, Education, Nursing and Hospital Management, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, 238 pages.  UMI  AAT 9923892 [24 page preview].  DAI-B 60-03, p. 1017, Sep 1999.  This study confirmed that the activities of four senior nurse executives, each in a qualitatively different acute healthcare hospital (federal government, state government, for-profit, and not-for-profit), were consistent with Jaques’ stratified systems theory.  They engaged in more frequent strategic activities, less frequent organizational and infrequent production behaviors.  U.S. Army Nursing Corps. [See NTIS]  PhD on RO.

Ogunfowora, Babatunde, 2009, The Consequences of Ethical Leadership: Comparisons with transformational leadership and abusive supervision, PhD, dissertation in Psychology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 122 p.  ProQuest Doc ID 304842505.  Order: NR54476.  ISBN 9780494544761.  UC Liby: [No record].  Theses Canada AMICUS No. 38121922.  NL Stacks - Mic. F. TK- 54476. Unpublished.  Ethical leadership was evaluated relative to two other leadership constructs, transformational leadership (Bass 1985) and abusive supervision (Tepper 2000).  Participants (N = 297) were employees of five not-for-profit organizations working in 58 teams. Ethical leadership correlated rather strongly (r = .88) with transformational leadership.  Ethical leadership positively predicted leader satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviours, and affective organizational commitment at the group level.  However, ethical leadership explained little to no unique variance compared to transformational leadership and abusive supervision.  Ethical leadership and its effects overlap considerably with transformational leadership.  See Brown, Treviño, and Harrison 2005; Trevino, Brown, and L. Hartman 2006; Colquitt 2001.  At U. Regina, Sask., Can.  Abs  #  #  Related PhD.

McMorland, Judith, and Ljiljana Erakovic, 2010, “Case study of a New Zealand not-for-profit organization – an evolutionary and Levels of Work perspective on the emergence of governance/management relationships,” Global Organization Design Society, Toronto, ON, Canada, 15 June 2010, 19 p.  (Chart: “Stages of Organisational Development and Complexity.”)  The governance and managerial relationships change as a non-profit grows.  It this case, the organization expanded continuously over a 25 year period across several work levels. Using Stamp’s application of Jaques’ theory the expansion to a national level with increasing complexity of services was accomplished without loss of control.  The work of the Board also grew more complex.  Cited Jaques & Clement 1991; Stamp 1990; McMorland 2005. Articles #10-06-15-1a & 1b.  Online at  At U. Auckland, NZ.  #  #  Ru.

McMorland, Judith, and Ljiljana Erakovic, 2011, "Governance in a not-for-profit: the 'Am Calon' case," University of Auckland Business Review, NZ, Autumn 2011, [March ?], 13(1):5-11.  ISSN: 11749946.  A case.  The article examines the principles of governance applied by not-for-profit (NFP) organizations in NZ.  It discusses the story of NFP organization Am Calon to reflect the critical issues of organizational development that challenge principles and practices of governance.  It presents an integrated set of principles linking developmental stages of organizational structure to the members of the organization as a whole.  Cited Jaques & Clement 1991; Stamp 1990; McMorland 2005.  At U. Auckland, NZ.  #  Rp.  PJ.

[Seltzer, J., and Mark P. Kriger, e. 2008, "Organizational Vision in Not-for-Profit Organizations," under revision.]

Lambert, Paul, and Simon Thane, 2011, "The Missing Middle -- Strategic Alignment & Empowerment," People & Strategy, NY, NY, US, 34(4):52-55.  4p.  ISSN: 0199-8986.

A case.  The article illustrates how three core concepts with ChildFund International (ChildFund), a large international development not-for-profit, addressed the Missing Middle.  The Missing Middle is described as the gap that appears between the centrally held strategy and initiatives to deliver the mission and innovation occurring in culturally aligned and tailored front-line activity.  The three organizational levers that should be addressed to create a midlevel in an organization are provided as structure, measures, and process differentiation. These levers are detailed in the article.  At Hay Group; Tricordant Ltd.  #  Rp.  PJ.

Does NOT use Jaques theory 

Billis, David, and Howard Glennerster, 1998, "Human Services and the Voluntary Sector: Towards a Theory of Comparative Advantage," Journal of Social Policy, Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, Jan., 27(1):79-98.  Comparative advantage allows a coherent case to be developed showing the inherent structural characteristics of each sector (for example, ownership, stakeholders and resources) which predispose them to respond more or less sensitively to different states of ‘disadvantage’ experienced by their users.  These are financial, personal, societal, and community disadvantages.  Voluntary organasitions have a comparative advantage in their distinctive ambiguous and hybrid structures enable them to overcome problems of principal-agent gap, median voter reluctance, weak messages from politicians to staff, and lack of market interest.  Organisational growth lowers the comparative advantage of voluntary agencies.  Both at London School of Economics.  Htr SW & online.  #  Rp.  PJ.  A.

Billis, David, Dr., 1990, “BkRev: Between Profit and the State by Alan Ware,” European Sociological Review, Sept. 1990, 6(2):192-194. Billis was equivocal toward the book and felt the voluntary sector might be evaluated by Ware in a somewhat more balanced fashion with less extreme expression if Ware had more practical experience in the sector.  Billis at London School of Economics.  Online at JSTOR.  # BkRev.

Harris, Margaret, and Jane Harris, 2002, “Achieving Organizational Collaboration in the Nonprofit Sector: An action research approach,” Organization Development Journal, Chesterland, UK, Spring 2002, 20(1):28-35.  Action research using social analysis and other methods explored collaborative possibilities between independent voluntary agencies working on HIV/AIDS.  6 of the 8 agencies studied decided to merge.  Looks like it worked.  #  Rp.  PJ

Harris, Margaret E., 1995, The Work and Organisation of Local Churches and Synagogues : Four English Congregations in the 1990s, Ph.D., thesis in Organization Studies (A2e, Christian Religion - Practical Theology, Clergy - eh?), London School of Political and Economic Science (LSE), University of London, London, UK, [length unknown].  Theses #46-3074.  LSE Library, F7254, (THESES), SPECIAL, 1995.  [Online catalogue entry is blank.]  Published as a book: Harris, Margaret, 1998, Organizing God's Work, challenges for churches and synagogues, Macmillan, Houndsmills, Basingstoke, UK, St. Martin’s Press, NY, NY, 236 pages.  [Union Th. Sem. has it.]  She did her MA at Brunel in 1985.  It too was published as a book, with David Billis as co-author.  Formerly Assistant Director of the Centre for Voluntary Organisation at Brunel and later at the London School of Economics.  Professor of Voluntary Sector Organisation at Aston Business School in Birmingham, UK.  Chair of Centre for Voluntary Action Research.  Contact: Julie Green, Email: [email protected]  Related PhD.  A.

Herman, Robert D., and David O. Renz, 1999, “Theses on Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness,” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Sage Pub., Thousand Oaks, Cal., June, 28(2):107-126.  This article advances six theses about the effectiveness of public benefit charitable nonprofit organizations (NPOs). (a) Non-profit organizational effectiveness is always a matter of comparison. (b) Nonprofit organizational effectiveness is multidimensional and will never be reducible to a single measure. (c) Boards of directors make a difference in the effectiveness of NPOs, but how they do this is not clear. (d) More effective NPOs are more likely to use correct management practices. (e) Nonprofit organizational effectiveness is a social construction. (f) Program outcome indicators as measures of NPO effectiveness are limited and can be dangerous . The article concludes by considering three possible futures for NPO effectiveness research.  At U Missouri - Kansas City.  Misc.  PJ.

McCusker, R., 1961, “Ice Cold at Glacier Metal,” Trade Union Affairs, Autumn/Winter, UK, p. 39-43.  This starts as a book review of Exploration in Management by Wilfred Brown – and becomes more.  McCusker was a trade union official at Glacier’s London factory, so this is also an insider’s sceptical view of the Glacier system.  “Glacier Metal is genuinely trying to foresee its problems, to categorize them, and to plan their remedies ... [and] to prevent problems from arising.”  He describes the three-part system: representative, legislative and appeals, and their human limitations as practiced.  “To be fair to [Brown], let me say that he is not, in any way, opposed to the trade unions.  If they are there that is all right by him, but I believe he thinks they are not necessary.”  “The theory behind the company’s ideas reminds me somewhat of the theory behind management-trade union relations in Communist countries; i.e., we are all working together for the common good and thus there can be no differences between us.”  Cr.  NJ.

Sheaffer, Zachary, and Rita Mano-Negrin, 2003, "Executives' Orientations as Indicators of Crisis Management Policies and Practices," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, US-UK, Mar2003, 40(2):573-606.  34p.  Word Count: 12454.  ISSN: 0022-2380.  DOI: 10.1111/1467-6486.00351.  Since the future is unknowable, one of the key managerial orientations was crisis preparedness or crisis proneness.  In a sample of 82 Israeli business and not-for-profit organizations it was found that human resource management, strategy, structure, and unlearning factors significantly predicted crisis preparedness. These results suggest that unlearning correlates better with crisis preparedness.  By contrast, traditional strategy-related and structural effects were marginally related to crisis management policies.  A focus on single-sided management (even a strength such as cost-control) constituted an antecedent of crisis proneness.  Jaques not cited.  Cited D. Miller 1993, 1996; Nystrom & Starbuck 1984; Ulrich 1998; Richardson 1993, 1995.  At Open U. of Israel; U. of Haifa.  [email protected]  #  MS.  PJ. 

Palmer, Paul, and Mariana Bogdanova, 2008, "The British are not coming!: UK higher education and the nonprofit sector," Nonprofit Management & Leadership, Wiley, US/UK, Fall2008, 19(1):79-99.  DOI: 10.1002/nml.206.  ISSN: 10486682.  In 1995 the US and the United Kingdom were at similar levels of development in nonprofit management education.  By 2006 nonprofit management education had expanded in the US while provision of graduate education for the voluntary sector in the UK had stood still.  The UK university was one of the factors that prevented parallel growth in education provision.  The recent closing of the world's first voluntary sector course at the LSE was lamented.  Cited Billis 1984; Harris 1989, 2001.  Both authors at Cass Business School, London, UK  #  Misc.  PJ. 

Sheldon, Oliver, 1970, "Professional Creed for Management," chapter (p. 266-277) in Merrill, Harwood F., 1970, Classics in Management, Rev. ed., American Management Association, NY, NY, US, 495 p.  (Also in 1960 edn.)  (NYPL Schw E-14 1323.)  [This was the last chapter in his 1923 book: Philosophy of Management, Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, London, UK; Pitman, NY, NY, US, 296 p.  Intro'd. by Alex W. Rathe (NYU).  Foreword by B. Seebohm Rountree.  Repr. 1965.  (NYPL Schw  D-17 2594.)  This piece is often taken as a tribute to impersonal, Scientific Management, its lofty goal of the common good, to raise social justice and communal well-being.  Gantt no doubt would be proud.  There in only one problem – Sheldon worked all his life for Rountree.  (Rountree was no Taylorist.  He was an idealist who believed in social good as the goal of business, not control.)  #  Misc.  Ch. 

Streeck, Wolfgang, 1989, “Skill and the Limits of Neo-Liberalism: the enterprise of the future as a place of learning”, Work,Employment and Society, British Sociological Association, London,

UK, March, 3(1):89-104.  Supply-side economics rules.  But unless common goods are recognized, they will not be replaced and deregulation will become self-defeating.  High-skills are needed to retain high-incomes.  This means education and taxes.  Democratic corporatism may have a future.  Cited (sic) in Morishima 1995.  CUNY Htr – online.  #  Misc.  PJ.  A.

Major organizations and consulting firms that provide Requisite Organization-based services

A global association of academics, managers, and consultants that focuses on spreading RO implementation practices and encouraging their use
Dr. Gerry Kraines, the firms principal, combines Harry Levinson's leadership frameworks with Elliott Jaques's Requisite Organization. He worked closely with Jaques over many years, has trained more managers in these methods than anyone else in the field, and has developed a comprehensive RO-based software for client firms.
Founded as an assessment consultancy using Jaques's CIP methods, the US-based firm expanded to talent pool design and management, and managerial leadership practice-based work processes
Former RO-experienced CEO, Ron Harding, provides ooaching to CEOs of start-ups and small and medium-size companies that are exploring their own use of RO concepts.  His role is limited, temporary and coordinated with the RO-based consultant working with the organization
Ron Capelle is unique in his multiple professional certifications, his implementation of RO concepts through well designed organization development methods, and his research documenting the effectiveness of his firm's interventions
A Toronto requisite organization-based consultancy with a wide range of executive coaching, training, organization design and development services.
A Sweden-based consultancy, Enhancer practices time-span based analysis, executive assessment, and provides due diligence diagnosis to investors on acquisitions.
Founded by Gillian Stamp, one of Jaques's colleagues at Brunel, the firm modified Jaques;s work-levels, developed the Career Path Appreciation method, and has grown to several hundred certified assessors in aligned consulting firms world-wide recently expanding to include organization design
Requisite Organization International Institute distributes Elliott Jaques's books, papers, and videos and provides RO-based training to client organizations