Application of Requisite Organization Concepts in Mining and Heavy Manufacturing Organizations

Note: This information was produced using AI analysis of the video presentation transcript and has not yet been reviewed and approved by the client or the consultant.


Heavy manufacturing


Wilfred Brown

Wilfred Banks Duncan Brown was born in Greenock in Scotland on 29 November 1908. He was educated at Rossall School and later received honorary degrees from Brunel (DTech) in 1966, Southern Illinois (Doctor of Laws) in 1967 and Cranfield (DSc) in 1972. In 1939 he married Marjorie Hershall Skinner, with whom he had three sons: Richard, Michael and Angus.

Brown joined the Glacier Metal Company in 1931, and was its Managing Director and Chairman 1939-1965. He was Director of Associated Engineering 1964-1965. He was Pro-Chancellor of Brunel University 1966-1980.

Brown was awarded the MBE in 1944 and was created a Life Peer, as Baron Brown of Machrihanish, in 1964. He was Minister of State at the Board of Trade 1975-1970 and was appointed to the Privy Council in 1970. As Lord Brown he was active in the House of Lords. He sat on the Select Committee on the European Communities and the Select Committee on Science and Technology, and was a member of the Industrial Development Advisory Board and chairman of the Machine Tool Advisory Committee.

Wilfred Brown's published works include: "Managers, Men and Morale" (with W. Raphael), 1947; "Exploration in Management", 1960; "Piecework Abandoned", 1962; "Product Analysis Pricing" (with Elliott Jaques), 1964; "Glacier Project Papers" (with Elliott Jaques), 1965; "Organization", 1971; "The Earnings Conflict", 1973; "Bismarck to Bullock" (with Wolfgang Hirsh-Weber), 1983.

He died on 17 March 1985.

Academic Degrees and Professional Certifications:

  • DTech - Honourary - Brunel University, United Kingdom 1966
  • Doctor of Laws - Honourary - Southern Illinois University, United States 1967
  • DSc - Honourary - Cranfield University, United Kingdom 1972
  • MBE - United Kingdom 1944
  • Peership - United Kingdom 1964

Requisite Organization: The CEO's Perspective

Raul Timerman, Thomas Kelly,Thad Simons, Kenneth Craddock, Carlos Leone, Giovanni Gasperoni, Norm Trainor, Roberto Wagmaister, Arturo Acevedo, Michael Kirby, Mark Cutifani, Mark Kaminski, Modesto Miguez, Lord Wilfred Brown, Ian MacDonald, Jos Winterman, Andrés D'Alessio, Leigh Clifford, Sir Roderick Carnegie

Glacier Metal Company

Glacier Project Papers
by Elliott Jaques & Wilfred Brown
For seventeen years, the Glacier Metal Company maintained a continuous analysis of all aspects of its organization as an integral part of sound management. Out of this basic material there emerged a profound contribution to modern industrial theory and practice. In this book-the eighth in the series of publications from the Glacier Project-are collected a group of fifteen papers by Wilfred Brown, Chairman of the company, and Elliott Jaques, who was consultant social-analyst throughout the project. Most of these papers were prepared for the purpose of teaching at the Glacier Institute of Management. The questions they address cover the whole range of organizational problems and issues.

CRA/Rio Tinto

Catherine G. Burke, Ian Macdonald, Karl Stewart

Conzinc Rio Tinto of Australia (CRA), a 25,000-employee Australian mining and refining company, worked more than ten years to improve its competitiveness through the implementation of RO

  • After early systems design failures due to poor setting of managerial accountabilities and authorities, the authors describe improving their principles and practices to design and implement a successful transformation of a CRA business unit, New Zealand Aluminium Smelter, with large improvements in productivity, profitability, and worker satisfaction.
  • A key principle is that the design of systems, including their foundational values, the values that employees perceive embedded in them, and the design of system controls and audit, is a high-level task requiring a minimum of stratum IV capability.
Missing media item.


Systems Leadership: Creating positive Organizations (Book)


Video Interviews with Leigh Clifford, CEO, Rio Tinto, UK, 2005.

Conzinc Rio Tinto of Australia (CRA), a 25,000-employee Australian mining and refining company, worked more than ten years to improve its competitiveness through the implementation of RO

  • After early systems design failures due to poor setting of managerial accountabilities and authorities, the authors describe improving their principles and practices to design and implement a successful transformation of a CRA business unit, New Zealand Aluminium Smelter, with large improvements in productivity, profitability, and worker satisfaction.
  • A key principle is that the design of systems, including their foundational values, the values that employees perceive imbedded in them, and the design of system controls and audit, is a high-level task requiring a minimum of stratum IV capability.

Duration: 8:53

Duration: 3:29

Duration: 2:13

Duration: 2:40


Sir Roderick Carnegie, Former CEO of CRA, and Jack Brady, Former Corporate VPHR.

20 minute video of Sir Roderick speaking about CEO leadership of a ten year RO implementaton at CRA.





Arturo Acevedo, Former Owner, Acindar Steel, Argentina.



  • Evolución de la estructura organizacional
  • Principales desarrollos
  • Impacto en el clima laboral
  • Participación de los agentes de cambio
  • Logros
  • Factores clave de évito


Pablo Kanterewicz, Director, Kanterewicz y Asociados, Argentina, 2009 (Español)

Maria Suero, Independent Consultant, Argentina, 2009 (worked 7 years with Acindar)(Español)

AngloGold Ashanti

Mark Cutifani, CEO, AngloGold Ashanti
Reports on use of requisite organization at AngloGold Ashanti
Global Organization Design Conference in Buenos Aires 2009 - by video
Mark Cutifani, CEO, AngloGold Ashanti, Conference 2009

Algoma Steel


How did Denis Turcotte become Canada's CEO of the year?
By Gerald Kraines


Canadian Business's "CEO of the Year"led a masterful turnaround of Algoma Steel from bankruptcy to industry leader in a few short year. Denis Turcotte, a three-time CEO user of requisite organization (RO) methods, applied RO as the major management framework to design and lead the comapny's transformation.

Gerald A. Kraines describes how Turcotte used his managerial leadership skills and RO concepts to overcome major challenges in:

  • redesigning the organization,
  • transforming the culture to one of accountability where people "keep their word" and "earn their keep,"and
  • transforming the organization's relationship with its unions.



Video Interviews with Raul Timerman, Former CEO, CONARCO, Argentina, 2009
(Spanish with English subtitles)

Consolidated Gold Fields·Resources - Mining

Video Interviews with Allan Sykes, Managing Director, 2005


Video Presentation with Mark Cutifani, former EVP Operations & COO, CRVD Inco, 1997

Tata Group


We want to attract good people, retain the better people and advance the best people

From Tata Group Media room, Interview with R. Gopalakrishnan by Christabelle Noronha



Extra Resources·from Ken Craddock's RO Bibliography


  • Acevedo, Arturo T., 1999, entrevista: “Como piloteamos el cambio en Acindar,” Clarín Economico, Buenos Aires, AR, 28 de marzo de 1999, Pag. 14. In Spanish.
  • Acevedo, Arturo T., 1999, entrevista: “Producir fuera de casa,” entrevista a Arturo T. Acevedo. La Nacion. Buenos Aires, AR, 25 de julio de 1999, Secc. 2, pag 7. In Spanish..
  • Allen Institute of Management/ Cunningham Enterprises, 1966, “Exploration in Management,” Herrin, Ill. A set of nine audio tapes featuring Lord Wilfred Brown based on the book. (These tapes were digitized by the GO Society. Listed in video section below).
  • Anonymous, 1994, “CRA's Individual Contracts - The Inside Story,” Inside Enterprise Bargaining, Manly, NSW, Australia, Issue 21, March.


  • Baker, Chris, 2000, “Rio Tinto Plc & Ltd, (RIO)” UBS Warburg Australia Limited, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 15 pages. “Australia; Mining, diversified; 15 September 2000.” Investment Analysis. Co-authors: Paul Galloway, Andrew Snowdowne. For 1999: Warburg Dillon Read Australia Equities, 20 pages. For 1998: Warburg Dillon Read Australia Equities, Melbourne, 11 pages. (Although the brokerage keeps changing its name the financial analysts remain the same.) If this series of yearly reports goes back before 1978, it might provide a source for longitudinal analysis of the financial impact of R.O. in Rio Tinto/ RTZ/ CRA/ Comalco. This should give the financial market’s viewpoint and valuation on R.O. I am assuming the application of Graham and Dodd analysis in these reports. Other brokerages in Australia, US, UK, RSA, and Japan also should be queried regarding their coverage of Rio Tinto. NatLibAU has these. Not seen. D.
  • Behrend, Hilde, 1953, “A Note on Labour Turnover and The Individual Factory,” Journal of Industrial Economics, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, Nov., 2(1):58-64. A review of articles by Tavistock writers Rice, Hill and Trist (Human Relations, 1950-1952: II, IV, VIII) who used Kurt Lewin’s field theory to explain labour turnover at the Glacier Metal Company. She blasted their lack of data, elaborate terms, and complex mathematics as “not sufficient to constitute a scientific method.” She did not mention Jaques, who wrote several articles in this same series on the Glacier Project. Ref.
  • Behrmann, Elisabeth, 2006, “Rio Tinto Names Albanese as CEO,” Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition; NY, NY; 12/6/2006, 248(133):B11. The article reports on the selection of Tom Albanese to succeed Leigh Clifford as chief executive of Rio Tinto PLC effective May 1, 2007.
  • Botsman, P., 1996, “Individual Contracts and the New ‘Industrial Relations Culture’ Strategies for Unions,” paper presented to the New Zealand Engineering, Printing and Manufacturing Union, New Plymouth, New Zealand, 5th August 1996.
  • Briers, Michael, 1997, Translating Activity Based Costing: A Micro Study of Accounting Change, Ph.D., thesis in Accounting, University of New South Wales, School of Accounting, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Published as an article: Briers, Michael, and Wai Fong Chua, 2001, “The role of actor-networks and boundary objects in management accounting change: a field study of an implementation of activity-based costing,” Accounting, Organizations and Society, April 2001, 26(3):237-269. This firm clearly was Rio Tinto’s aluminum plate operation after the transition to requisite organization. How an organization’s accounting system can be changed by a heterogeneous actor-network of local and global actors and actants. Focused on the role of boundary objects that were able to stabilize and mediate diverse interests. This accounting change was anti-heroic with many involved rather than the powerful few. It also was cyclical, as accounting changes were adopted on faith, made to ‘work-succeed’ only temporarily, and then abandoned to move to the next round. And it worked. ABC was installed long enough for managers to make the needed decision. Treated symmetrically the constructed nature of technological success or failure. Cited Jaques’ RO1 1989, Latour, and Woolgar. See Norton 1995 PhD. Related.
  • Briers, Michael, and Wai Fong Chua, 2001, “The role of actor-networks and boundary objects in management accounting change: a field study of an implementation of activity-based costing,” Accounting, Organizations and Society, April 2001, 26(3):237-269. This firm clearly was Rio Tinto’s aluminum plate operation after the transition to requisite organization. How an organization’s accounting system can be changed to ABC. Article based on Briers’ 1997 Related PhD. MS. PJ. A.
  • Brown, Lord Wilfred (1908-1985). Papers. Chairman, Glacier Metal Co. Ltd; Director Associated Engineering Ltd., Minister of State Board of Trade, 1965-1970; Pro-Chancellor, Brunel University, 1966-1980. Papers, correspondence and personal scrapbooks, 1930-2002. BRWN 14 archive boxes sorted into four series. Opened 9 May 2003. (Thank yous to Paul Lynch in AU.) A full catalogue is on the Janus webserver, Cambridge U., Churchill Archives: Modified=00F8C34BB659C301D9 ~
  • Brown, Wilfred D. B. Lord, 1966. Mr. Brown, Chair of the Board of the Glacier Metal Company (England) was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree at the June 1966 commencement at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL. The action approving this award was voted on February 1966 by the SIU Board of Trustees. ~
  • Brown, Wilfred, 1960, Exploration In Management, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., London, UK. and John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. Foreword by Eric L. Trist of the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. Republished by Penguin Books (pbk?), Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1965, 1971 with a Foreword by Michael Shanks, 343 p. Heinemann, 1969. The MD/CEO of Glacier Metal speaks on structure, policy, communication, the executive system, and the sources of managerial authority. Brown identified five differential levels of work (“ranks”) along with the “Time-Span Bracket of work level according to Jaques” and “Salary Bracket felt to be fair by those whose work has been analysed by Jaques (about 1000 people) and who are occupying roles at these discrete levels (as at December 1961)” (Fig. 4). Brown favored a representative structure of joint consultation works councils to keep vertical channels open. His definition of time-span differed from Jaques’ (p. 36). See Book Reviews by M. Della Valle, R. Dubin and E. F. Harris 1961, by Robertson 1961, and by B. N. Seear 1962. See Mahler 1975 for link to GE, Jones, Welch.
  • Translated into Swedish, Forkning l Foretagsledning, Stromberg, Stockholm.
  • French, Gestion Prospective de L’Enterprise, Les Editions de la Baconniere, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1964.
  • Union Tipografica Editorial Hispano Americana, Mexico, 1965, 291 pages, tr: Joaquin Martinez Saenz (@ Texas A&M).
  • As of 1971 Japanese and Italian translations were in preparation. (Now in Japanese libraries: Nihon U., Sakushin Gakuin U., Osaka Gakuin U., Sapporo U., Konan U.)
  • Glacier Institute of Management, c. 1965-1970, “Exploration in Management,” a set of six colour video films featuring Lord Wilfred Brown based on the book (2005 DVD in video section below).
  • Brown, Wilfred, 1971, Esperienze di direzione aziendale, Franco Angeli, Milano, IT, 353 p. (I classici della società industriale). Organizzazione aziendale; Teoria dell'organizzazione. Lingua: Italiano.
  • Burgess, B., 1985, “Career Path Appreciation – The Practice,” Rio Tinto Zinc (RTZ), conference paper. [Unclear if in London, UK or Melbourne, Australia. See Stamp 1989, Stamp and Stamp 1993.]


  • Carnegie, Sir Roderick, 1980, “Human Relations in Australian Enterprises,” paper prepared for Australian Japan Business Co-operation Committee, 18th Joint Meeting, Toyko, October 1980, CRA Limited, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 18 pages. NatLibAU has it. Not seen. Ru.
  • Carnegie, Sir Roderick, 2002. See his “Book Review of Social Power and the CEO.” ~
  • Cliffe, John, 1984, Works Councils: A Case Study, Ph.D., thesis in Sociology (Labour and Wages, Industrial Relations), (B9c), Brunel University, (West London), Uxbridge, Middlesex, U.K., 188 p. Theses # 34-678. BLL no. D50296/84. Uxbridge PH.D.C56. Unpublished. (Cliffe worked at GIM. Jerry Gray says Jaques was Cliffe’s advisor and Cliffe was on the faculty at GIM/AE. Cliffe died in 2001.) This was on the adoption of a company constitution featuring Wilfred Brown’s multi-level policy-making works councils structure in an American-owned manufacturing company in England in 1977-78. The predicted outcomes were generally realised. However, there were two unpredicted outcomes. Employees involved in the original dispute withdrew from the union, and representative participation was not universally desired by all employees. This lead to the derivation of limiting conditions for their application. A case.
  • Clifford, R. L., 2000, “Address by the Chief Executive of Rio Tinto,” Melbourne Securities Institute of Australia, Melbourne, Vic, Aug.
  • Comalco Mineral Products, 1986, “Mutual Recognition Unit (MRU). Outline of the structure and roles within the unit.” Company document. Ru.
  • Comalco Mineral Products, 1991, Weipa: The Mine and its People, Public Relations Booklet on Weipa, 4th edn, 1st print. Published by Comalco Aluminium Limited, Post Office, Weipa 4874 Qld. Ru.
  • Comalco Minerals and Alumina, 1993, “CLASSIC: Continuous Learning Applied to Safety Systems in Comalco.” ACN 009 679 127. Company document.·· Ru.
  • Comalco Minerals and Alumina, 1994, “Glancing back… Racing Forward: Personal Effectiveness Review and Learning in Comalco Minerals & Alumina.” Produced by the Organisational Effectiveness Group, Brisbane. Company document. Ru.
  • Comalco Minerals and Alumina, 1994, “Transition to the Salaried Staff Employment System. Questions and Answers. A guide for Superintendents and Supervisors in Bauxite Operations.” January. Company document. Ru.
  • Comalco, 1995, Annual Report, Registered Office, 55 Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Ru.
  • Comalco, 1999, “PEP: Innovation Involving the Entire Workforce.” (PEP: Performance Enhancement Program.)·· Ru.
  • Comalco. See: Rio Tinto/ RTZ/ CRA/ Comalco Company Documents (in a separate section): ~
  • CRA, 1981, “The Industrial Relations Model,” CRA internal document. Ru.
  • CRA, 1983, “CRA Planning System for General Managers,” CRA internal document. Ru.
  • CRA. See: Rio Tinto/ RTZ/ CRA/ Comalco Company Documents (in a separate section):
  • CRA: Howes, Peter, 1990, “Formulation of an Education, Training and Development Strategy,” Document prepared for the GM Organisation by HRM Consulting, North Quay, Brisbane, December. Company document. Ru.
  • CRA: Miller and Jennings, 1986, “Structure and Systems in Effective Communication,” CRA Internal Paper, September. Company document. Ru.


  • Deery, Stephen, and Richard Mitchell, eds., 1999, Employment Relations: individualisation and union exclusion: an international study, Federation Press, Leichhardt, NSW, Australia, 254 pages. A comparative anthology of industrial relations, labor unions and collective bargaining in Australia, Great Britain, Japan and New Zealand. The timing of this study is important as it falls into the period of individual contracts at Rio Tinto, 1995-2002, and the NZ law allowing them. Not in Clio or NYPL. See CU Law: out to Faculty 1 year. Oxford, LaTrobe have it. Not seen. MS.


  • Fetter, Joel, 2002, “The Strategic Use of Individual Employment Agreements: Three Case Studies,” Centre for Employment and Labour Relations Law (CELRL), Working Paper No. 26, December, Melbourne, Vic, Australia, 35 p. The cases examined are: CRA Weipa (p. 4), BHP Iron Ore (p. 12), and Commonwealth Bank (p. 24). An assessment of the management’s reasons for each offer of staff agreement. CRA wished to rid itself of militant unions; BHP Iron Ore sought workrule and technology flexibility; and Commonwealth Bank was trying to transform itself in the wake of privatization. See Waring Related PhD. See McDonald and Timo 1996. See van Barneveld and Waring 2002. Ru.
  • Freehill Holingdale & Page, 1995, “CRA Cases an Analysis,” In Time: Employee Relations, Issue No. 10, November. They quoted Hon. J. T. Ludeke. A case. Not seen. (I cannot find this publication - the words in the title are too common. Is the author a law firm?) Cited in Hearn Mackinnon 2003 PhD. ASK HIM. (?)


  • Glacier Institute of Management, c. 1960-1965, “Exploration in Management,” a set of six colour video films featuring Lord Wilfred Brown based on the book (2005 DVD in video section below).
  • Glacier Metal Company Ltd., 2001, company records are at: Argyle House, Joel Street, Northwood Hills, Middlesex, UK. HA6 1LN. Tel: +44 (0)1923 826100. Fax: +44 (0)1923 421815. Keywords are bearings/gears; manufacture/supply. Profile: bearings for rotating machinery. ~
  • Glacier Metal Works Committee 1941-86. University of Warwick Library. UK. MSS.300, Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick. The records and minutes of the Works Committee meetings. The archive has been catalogued to file level. A copy of this catalogue is available in the Centre's searchroom. The company, plain bearings specialists, was founded in north London in 1899 and was associated with Alperton for most of the twentieth century, although production was dispersed to Ayrshire during the Second World War. It joined Associated Engineering Ltd. in 1964, which was then taken over by Turner and Newall in the 1980s. Glacier Metal became well known through the research and development in organisation and management initiated by Wilfred Brown, its managing director, 1939-65. Opened 2001. A significant new source for researchers. ~
  • Glacier Metal,1962, “A Year of Exploration for Glacier Metal,” & “Manufacturing Developments,” Engineering, [Companies], The Design Council, London, UK, 22 June 1962, v. 193, p. 817. Brown announced recent financial results for the first half at Glacier were “very disappointing” due to below-full volume demand from the motor industry. There were 150 people in R&D.
  • Gouldner, Alvin W., 1954, Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy, Free Press, Glencoe, Ill., 282 p. (Reprinted 1964). The question then was: Do managers matter? A detailed sociological description of the output, functioning, and morale of an organization both before and after a managerial succession at a mining and processing gypsum plant in the US Midwest. The new plant manager fired several long-time senior managers, abolished the “indulgence era,” followed company policies, forced bureaucratic controls on the employees, faced down worker resistance (they only accepted the new safety rules), and established a punishment-centered bureaucracy. (This conflict led to lower profits.) Not on RO theory but shows managers and their policies DO matter. (See pt. I, p.133. Ref. to Donald Pelz, p. 222. See p. 25-28 on Weber, Machiavelli, Max Lerner. See citation in Robert Guest 1960 and 1962 for parallel. See Blau 1968 and Crane 1986 on expertise.) Bus HD31 .G73 Ref.


  • Halliday, Jacqueline Anne, 1996, Engineers Into Managers: How to Effect the Transition of a Competent Technical Professional Into a Competent Manager, Ph.D., dissertation in Business Administration and Adult Education, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, 301 pages. Not available from UMI. DAI-A 58/04, p. 1362, Oct 1997. Thesis: 620.0092/6. Research done in a “large Australian organisation” (Was this CRA?). “Management is not a profession but a craft.” Found that Australian education and business were not conducive to this transition. The key to success was the “mutual responsibilities” among individual, employer and academic institution and the “recognition” of lifelong learning. Related.
  • Harvey, Charles E., 1981, The Rio Tinto Company, 1873-1954: An Economic History of a Leading International Mining Concern,Penzance, Cornwall, UK, Alison Hodge, 390 pages, maps. Background material for any study of Rio Tinto (including RTZ, CRA, and Comalco) and the Jaques/ SST transformation there in the 1980s and 1990s. (See Harvey’s Interesting 1981 PhD thesis.) National Library of Australia. has it. ISBN: 0906720036
  • Hearn Mackinnon, Bruce William, 1996, “The Struggle for Managerial Prerogative: Ramifications of the CRA Weipa Dispute,” in Fells, R., and T. Todd, eds.,Current Research in Industrial Relations: proceedings of the 10thAIRAANZ Conference, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, February, p. 287-295. (Association of Industrial Relations Academics of Australia and New Zealand)
  • Hearn Mackinnon, Bruce, 2001, “Clash of the Titans: Rio Tinto vs the CFMEU,”Proceedings of the 15th AIRAANZ Conference, University of Wollongong, Jan. {AND/OR} Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM), Conference Proceedings, Wollongong, Feb., 1:208-213.
  • Hearn Mackinnon, Bruce, 2002, “The Mythology of “Staff” Employment: A Weapon of Mass Construction,” paper presented at Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld, AU. This paper explores the use of symbols and myths by management of Rio Tinto as important components of their weaponry for implementing a de-unionisation program throughout their Australian operations. The special use of language, categorisations and generalisations, have been crucial to the company’s successful implementation of “staff” employment. The ability of management to challenge and undermine traditional mythologies and develop new ones has been an essential ingredient in the company’s recipe for success in its efforts to de-unionise its workforce. In particular, the paper explores management’s skill in promoting either the equalisation or differentiation aspects of “staff” employment. The paper concludes that one of the distinguishing features of “staff” employment has been it’s ability to promote the appearance of equalisation while actually leading to an enhanced differentiation of power between workers and managers. BHM is on faculty with Deakin University.
  • Hearn Mackinnon, Bruce William, 2003, Strategic Management and Employee Relations: CRA/Rio Tinto's de-unionisation campaign 1991-2001, PhD, thesis in management, Dept. of Management, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, AU, 249 p. (He is teaching at Deakin Univ., Bowater School, and at Swinburne.) Published as a book in 2007. See also, Mackinnon. See PhDs.
  • Hill, J. M. M. (John Michael Meath), 1956, “Time Span of Discretion in Job Analysis,” Human Relations, Tavistock Publications, London, UK, August, 9(3):295-323. (Also published as: Tavistock Pamphlet No. 1, 1957, London, UK.) The article version of Jaques’ 1956 book. “A recent book by Dr. Elliott Jaques ....” He had pre-publication access to Jaques’ MSS. This article had to be ready for press around June 1st. Hill was Policy Research Officer in the Glacier Metal Company, reported to MD Brown and was technically Jaques’ supervisor. Contains three examples of time span analysis of jobs. Hill showed the steps and forms used in determining the time-span of individual workers at Glacier Metal. On time-span but not on fair pay. See Anonymous BkRev in Nature, Oct. 11, 1958, 182(4641):998-999. Mishra and Banerjee 1962 used this implementation of the theory as a guide to time-span. Reprinted in GPCC. See Hill 1958. *****
  • Hilmer, Frederick G., 1985, When The Luck Runs Out: the future for Australians at work, Harper and Row, Sydney, Australia, 163 p. Pbk: Angus and Robertson, 1990. (Hilmer provided much of the strategy and plans to match with Jaques’ structural concepts at Comalco/CRA/RTZ/Rio Tinto. Hilmer worked on this at McKinsey for a decade until 1989.) An examination of why Australian businesses were failing in the global market place and how to improve their game. Examined the reasons for traditionally negative Australian attitude towards work and suggested ‘sound common sense’ strategies for handling disputes, drawing on examples from Australian companies which have profitably used the energy and ingenuity of their staff. Advocated a shift from a ‘conscript’ attitude by workers to a ‘volunteer mindset.’ Hilmer was trying to start a shift in the domestic dialogue, similar to Peters and Waterman in the US (also McKinsey). Examined employment, education, training, enterprise strategies, organisation structures, systems. See Trinca 1997 and O’Brien 1994. Hilmer cited Jaques per Alman 1988. (ask Lynch.) Not seen.
  • Hilmer, Frederick G., 1989, “Real Jobs for Real Managers,” McKinsey Quarterly, New York, NY, Summer, p. 20-36. Hilmer was Managing Director of the Australian office of McKinsey before becoming Dean of the Australian Graduate School of Management at the University of New South Wales in Sydney. A major decade-long client was RTZ/ CRA/ Comalco/ Rio Tinto (one firm). This article reports McKinsey had “extensively tested [SST] in our work with companies in a wide variety of industries.” Cited in John Nicholls’ book review of Requisite Organization. (Also see Julian Fairfield and Nancy Lee.) Around 2000 Hilmer became CEO of Fairfax Publications, and in 2008 Prochancellor of UNSW. Nice Introductory article. SIBL has it. *****
  • Hilmer, Frederick G., 1989-1993. Hilmer was the lead author on three implementation reports issued by the Business Council of Australia regarding employee relations and enterprise-level wage bargaining. They are described in detail in O’Brien 1994 (q.v.). Jaques was not involved in this effort. CRA/RTZ/Rio Tinto followed this path culminating in the Weipa Dispute in 1995. In 2002 the union was voted back in by the employees.
  • Hilmer, Frederick G., and Lex Donaldson, 1996, Management Redeemed, Debunking the Fads That Undermine Our Corporations, The Free Press/ Simon & Schuster, New York and Sydney. Written by Australians who knew R.O. Managers suffer from the blandishments of fad mongers - both academics and consultants - peddling ready-made, ‘instant coffee’ solutions. They identify myths and false metaphors. They hold up four firms as examples of steady management commitment long enough to produce results: GE, Motorola, P&G, and CRA (slight). (See Dana Manufacturing with five levels [Glacier-Vandervell], p. 48-53.) Cited Brown on participation and Jaques on hierarchy and TSD. Article version, Donaldson and Hilmer 1998. See book review by Carter 1998. See Kieser 1997; Spitzer and Evans 1997; Heller et al 1998.
  • Hubbard, Graham, Delyth Samuel, Simon Heap, and Graeme Cocks, 2002, The First XI: Winning Organisations of Australia, John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, Wrightbooks Imprint, Milton, Qld., Australia., 336 pages, pbk. (A$34.95) ISBN 1740310659. A survey of Aussie firms a la In Search of Excellence and Built to Last by Mt. Eliza B-school faculty. Case studies and profiles. (See Dymocks books or Wiley to order.) Rio Tinto is one of the ‘XI.’ The 10 others are: Brambles, Harvey Norman, Lend Lease, Macquarie Bank, National Australian Bank, Qantas Airways, Salvation Army, Telstra, Westfield, and Woolworth’s. Surveyed top execs to find the short list, then interviewed execs in each firm on how the firm became a balanced ‘winner.’ Structure was important only as a support for activities (a la re-engineering). Wrong definition of TSD (p. 109). Telstra uses the theory also. Fred Hilmer is Deputy Chairman of Westfield Group retail property holdings. See Stace 1997 for Bovis Lend Lease. (I am unclear about Harvey Norman.) At least four of these eleven use Jaques’ theory. (Ch 4 on role levels not read.) SIBL JBE 03-214


  • IFCEMGWU, 1998, Rio Tinto Tainted Titan: the Stakeholders Report 1997, International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers’ Unions, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 56 pages. NatLibAU has it. Not seen.


  • James, David, 1995, “The Intellectual Muscle Behind CRA’s Management Style,” Business Review Weekly [BRW], Australasian Business Intelligence section, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Oct. 9, 17(39):80-82. Described CRA's management structure based on the ideas of Elliott Jaques, author of the book `Requisite Organization.' Structured to get rid of the destructive effects of industrial unrest; Concept of requisite organization; Implications on the union-based divisions in the workforce; Conflict between the management initiative and traditional industrial demarcation; Improvement of productivity.
  • James, David, 1996, “Forget Downsizing, Now It's Participative Redesign,” Business Review Weekly (BRW), John Fairfax Group, Australia, 25 November 1996, p. 70- . The logic pursued by many Australian managers often seems to be that "both downsizing and participative management involve removing bureaucratic layers. If we downsize our workforce, especially managers, we will cut costs and those left will feel more involved and empowered." (Instead, CRA uses Jaques’ organization structure.)
  • James, David, 1997, “High Priests Of The Corporate World,” Business Review Weekly, John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd, 23 June 1997, p. 52. On gurus, their fees, and their influence. Mentioned Jaques in passing in connection with CRA/ Rio Tinto.
  • Jaques, Elliott, 1951, The Changing Culture of a Factory, Tavistock Publications, London, 1951; Dryden Press, New York, 1952. (Reprinted 1987, Garland Publishing, New York, NY; currently issued by Cason Hall, Gloucester, MA.) This book was Jaques’ 1951 Harvard Ph.D. dissertation. Delineated managerial authority and accountability, and the structure of Glacier Metal’s works councils. Described worker participation and the formal representative system, yet even so, most workers did not participate. Applied anthropological concepts to a business organization and structure for the first time. A key innovation was his methodology, Social Analysis, a process of “working through” organizational issues with the aid of a social analyst. Others at Tavistock also used this method or variants of it. Book contains five case studies on change. It took three years for major changes to come about. This book went through 17 printings over 25 years. Jaques later came to think ‘culture’ was not a valid approach to organization study. See chapter 7 of Czarniawska-Joerges 1992 for review of book and its impact. (See Philip Selznick 1957. See Abegglen 1958 for a culturalist study of Japanese commerce and industry that derailed academic inquiry for two decades and still throws up roadblocks to understanding Japan today. See Ohashi and Teruyama 1998, p. 269-270.) Clio Offsite 261 J1641; 331.15 J36; and Psych 158 J276.
  • Jaques, Elliott, 1957, “The Impact of the Production Engineer Upon the Structure of Work and Payment In Industry,” Institution of Production Engineers Journal, UK, May 1957, 36(5):344-350. Responsibility level of work measured by "time span of discretion " principle i.e., by length of time individual workers spend for exercising own judgement; analysis of over 900 jobs at Glacier Metal Co shows that workers tend to be satisfied with earnings if consistent with discretion level of work; application of method in industries where work structure is modified by changes in production. Abstract seen.
  • Jaques, Elliott, 1980, “Some Observations on Industrial Relations Developments at Hamersley Iron Pty Limited.” Unpublished report, CRA/Rio Tinto. Recommendations on changing the Hamersley organisational structure around requisite layers following his visits to the Pilbara operations in 1979 and 1980. Cited in Tracy 2003. Not seen.
  • Jaques, Elliott, 1982, “The Method of Social Analysis in Social Change and Social Research,” Clinical Sociology Review, Brunner/Mazel, US, 1:50-58. Clinical sociology must conjoin theory and practice - theory developed in practice and toughened by use, and practice informed by theory. Social-analytic method was used to modify and develop organizational structures to achieve more humane and effective social structures. Projects discussed: Glacier Metal, Church of England, National Health Service (NHS). Others mentioned: Comalco/CRA and ARI. (Jaques had been pioneering clinical sociology for over 30 years at S7 and S8.) Reprinted as Chapter Three in: Fritz, J. M., and E. J. Clark, eds., 1986, The Clinical Sociology Resource Book, ASA Teaching Resources Center, Washington, DC, 155 pages. Originally presented at CSA as a paper in 1980. See negative review of Jaques chapter by Jaeckel 1989. See Glass 2001, Hess 1981.
  • Jaques, Elliott, 1982, Free Enterprise, Fair Employment, Crane Russak & Co, New York, NY, and Heinemann Educational Books, London, UK, 137 pages. Available from Cason Hall, Gloucester, MA. Jaques presents the argument that a political consensus to achieve equitable pay differentials based on the time-spans of individuals would eliminate inflation-unemployment cycles. Felt-fair pay would reduce the use of power negotiations to bargain for pay increases. The excesses of this drive create inflationary swings in actual pay and set off the cycles. Rejected both Keynesian and Friedmanite economic measures as inadequate for ending these wage-push cycles. Written while a Senior Fellow at Wesleyan University during 1980. Thanked the CRA gang. No bibliography. Cited in the Encyclopedia Britannica Online under “Labour Economics: additional reading.” Recommended by Robert W. Moore 1984 as a practical alternative to standard wage and salary administration concepts.
  • Jaques, Elliott, 1989, Requisite Organization: A Total System for Effective Managerial Organization and Managerial Leadership for the 21stCentury, 1st edition 1989, 2nd edition 1996, 2nd edition amended 1999, Cason Hall, Gloucester, MA; Gower Publications, Aldershot, England, 1991; Arlington, London. (Spanish translation of the second edition: Jaques, Elliott, 2001, La Organizacion Requerida: Un Sistema Integrado Para Crear Organizaciones Eficaces Y Aplicar El Liderazgo Gerencial En El Siglo XXI(Management Master Series), Granica SA, Argentina, 400 p. Prologue by Aldo Schlemenson. Translator: Wolfson, Leandro.) A reconceptualization of the SST theory for CEOs on a more practical level. This book incorporated what Jaques learned while consulting to CRA/Comalco/ RTZ/Rio Tinto [one firm] in Australia and the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff during the 1980s. Explored the linkage between increasing organizational complexity and managerial cognitive complexity as one moves up the hierarchy. (Michael Church 1997 noted this failed to fully reflect the importance of feedback information for steering processes, and neglected the importance of more intangible, social information, such as perception and values. In general, Jaques' presentation of his theory was still couched in the language of command/ control.) See Edith Penrose 1955 for a different version (in economics) of “The Archimedes Principle” (2nd edn. pp. 127-129). NO INDEX. Cited by Blunt 1989/1990, S. Clegg 1990, and Lord and Maher 1991 on p. 286. Review: Business Qtrly v. 61 (Spr 1997) [with text].
  • Jaques, Elliott, 1990, “Working-through Industrial Conflict: The Service Department at the Glacier Metal Company,” chapter in Trist, Eric, Hugh Murray and Beulah Trist, eds., 1990, The Social Engagement of Social Science: A Tavistock Anthology, Vol. I: The Socio-Psychological Perspective, U. of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA [Baltimore, MD?]. pp. 379-404. Revision of Chapter 4 in The Changing Culture of a Factory.
  • Jaques, Elliott, and Wilfred Brown, 1964, Product Analysis Pricing, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., London, UK, and later Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL, 148 p. [Brown was not listed as first author, q.v.] A case study of the pricing and cost systems at Glacier Metal. Gives the feel of the MD’s role running a job shop. Managerial and cost accounting from a unique viewpoint. This book is a challenge to cost accounting and economics. Explained how to delegate pricing decisions by attaching values to the objective qualities of the product/ service desired by customers rather than to unit costs. See Lawrence Miles’ value engineering and value analysis/ function analysis (VE/VA) for an interesting parallel. See Simons 1974/1978. See Bostock 1965 and R. May 1970 book reviews. Reviewed positively in The Director, UK, in 1964, no date. (Chapters 25 and 27 in Brown’s 1971Organization were based on this book. See Jules Backman 1961.) French translation: 1965, Détermination des prix de vente par analyse de produits, Hommes et Techniques, Paris, France. [À paraître.] (Was this book ever translated into Japanese?) Clio Biz HF 5415 .B815


  • Kapelus, Paul, 1999, Mining and the Community: An Ethnography of Transnational Corporations and Corporate Social Responsibilities, M.A. dissertation, University of Sussex, UK. (Not in· Length unknown.· Not in BL.· Written with support from MERN.)· Published as: Kapelus, Paul, 2002, “Mining, Corporate Social Responsibility and the ‘Community’: The Case of Rio Tinto, Richards Bay Minerals and the Mbonambi,” Journal of Business Ethics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Sept. 2002, 39(3):275-296.· Examined how the corporate social responsibility agenda of a major mining company (Rio Tinto) was implemented by a subsidiary (RBM) in South Africa through community consultation.· E-mail: [email protected]·· Related.
  • Kapelus, Paul, 2002, “Mining, Corporate Social Responsibility and the ‘Community’: The Case of Rio Tinto, Richards Bay Minerals and the Mbonambi,” Journal of Business Ethics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Gauteng, S.A., Sept. 2002, 39(3):275-296.·Examined how the corporate social responsibility agenda of a major mining company (Rio Tinto) was implemented by a subsidiary (RBM) in South Africa.· The mining industry has a poor record on this topic and opposition was strong.· Covered the last decade of history in this area.· The firm engaged in consultations with local communities on development goals and methods toward mutual agreement.· Based on his 1999 MA at U. Sussex in the UK.· Affiliation: African Institute of Corporate Citizenship, P.O. Box 37347, Birnam Park, 2015 Gauteng, South Africa, E-mail: [email protected]·· SIBL JLM 86-742·· BIZ: in jrnls.·· JOY
  • Keers, Helena, 2006, “Australian Large-Cap Shares (Unit Trusts) Winner: BT Financial Group,” AFR Smart Investor; AU, Sep2006, 1(10):52. The article features BT Financial Group, a large-cap manager in Australia. The BT team manages a total of $6 billion and is a part of the Westpac stable. The recent move of the company is reducing its resources positions and consolidating funds into BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto. Large-cap companies portfolio manager Troy Angus buying BHP shares below $9 in 2003 was one of the fund's best calls.
  • Kelly, Joe, 1964, “Changing Views of Management Efficiency,”Journal of Industrial Economics, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, March, 12(2):108-114. On the Jaques ‘task’ approach at Glacier Metal. Part of his on-site field work.
  • Kelly, Joe, 1966, “Observing Organisations: Methods,” Scientific Business, UK, March. How he did his research at Glacier Metal’s Kilmarnock plant.
  • Kelly, Joe, 1974, Organizational Behaviour, Irwin, Homewood, IL, (Rev. edition. Orig. 1969.) A full textbook. Pages 179-184 on Brown, Glacier and Jaques. (Also note on Edgar Schein.) This is a neat distillation of his 1968 book and 1966 dissertation on Glacier. Described Glacier Metal as “this beautiful, elegant, and comprehensive organization” (p. 184). City Coll. *****
  • Kidder, Rushworth M., 2005, Moral Courage, W. Morrow/ HarperCollins, New York, NY, 308 p. (Chapter 1, p. 5-7, 8.) Tale of a young metallurgist, Eric Duckworth, at Glacier Metal in 1949-1950. His ethical stance won him the admiration of the CEO (Wilfred Brown). Tale was a personal communication from Duckworth to Kidder (per Kidder email of 1-7-08). [Part of Glacier is now part of Federal Mogul.] (He is NOT the publisher.) (He did a book review in 1965. Profile in 1975.) NYPL LEO Mid-Manh 179.6 K, HIST Non-Fiction, 5th Fl. Misc. ·
  • Kirby, James, 1997, “Companies that teach you to be a star,” BRW (Business Review Weekly, cover story), Fairfax Group, Melbourne, Vic, Australia, 09/29/97, 19(37):55-60. Presented information on the five industry leaders in Australia considered to be finishing schools for business executives - Citibank, Rio Tinto, Coles Myer, McKinsey & Co, and Shell. Comments from alumni of each business. Ability to produce people equipped for any industry. Fred Hilmer, Dean of the AGSM, commented on the finishing schools of the future.
  • Kirsner, Douglas, 2004, “Organisation and Human Potential: Elliott Jaques and Australian Management Practice,” December 3-4, 2004, A Symposium at The Grand Hyatt, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Speakers were sourced from business, academia and consulting including: Kathryn Cason, collaborator with Elliott Jaques; Sir Roderick Carnegie, former CEO of the Business Council of Australia and CEO of CRA Limited; Julian Fairfield, Consultant and Author of 'Levels of Excellence'; John Nowlan, Bluescope Steel; Ian Alsop, Bioss, Australia; Dr Glenn Mehltretter, Director, PeopleFit USA; Betsy Watson, former Chief of Police, Austin and Houston, Texas; Associate Professor Doug Kirsner, Deakin University; and Dr Bruce Hearn Mackinnon, Deakin University, Conference Chair. Leaders of expert discussion panels drawn from industry and academia included: Dr Matt Butlin, Executive General Manager, Human Resources, Newcrest Mining; Dr Bardon Ellem, Associate Professor, Work and Organisational Studies, Sydney University; Jack Brady, Former Group Executive, Human Resources, CRA; Dr Wendy Attwater, Remuneration Consultant and Lecturer at Deakin University and Victoria University of Technology; Sheila Deane, Managing Director, PeopleFit Australasia; and John Woodacre, Win Win HRD WA Pty Ltd.
  • Kohler, Alan, 1995, “CRA Blazes a Trail for All Our Company Managers,” Sydney Morning Herald, John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 11/18/1995, p. 43. CRA has gotten employees to switch to individual employment contracts on six sites, in NZ and Australia. Productivity has risen 30-33 percent and quality has improved. Other firms have not done so because “management is not trusted enough.” ·


  • Lane, K. F., and J. E. Andrew, 1955, “A Method of Labour Turnover Analysis,” Journal of Research Statistics Society(?), UK, 118, A, 296-323. Data came from Glacier Metal. See Bartholomew, D. J., 1973, Omega, April, 1(2):235-240 (cited ref). See Glacier Project articles in Human Relations, 1950-1952.
  • London Factories Works Council, Glacier Metal Company, Ltd., 1965, London Factories Works Council, How It Works and What It Does, issued by the Glacier Metal Company, Ltd., London, UK. (Perhaps issued for the benefit of Associated Engineering, the new owners?)


  • Macdonald, Ian, 1987, The Need for and Use of Organisational Theory, CRA Services, Ltd., Melbourne, Australia. (A training pamphlet?)·· GET THIS
  • Macdonald, Ian, 1995/1996, “The Staff Relationship,” Evidence tended during the 1995 Weipa dispute on changes to individual employment awards and company policies, Australian Industrial Relations Commission (AIRC), 1996, Aluminium Industry CRA [Comalco] Weipa Case Transcript, Print no. M8600. Amal 27.11.95, pp 284-334. Macdonald Associates Consultancy. See Waring 1999 for excerpts, p. 297-299.
  • Macdonald, Ian, T. Palmer, Karl W. Stewart, and M. Woffenden, 1987, Information Systems,CRA Services, Ltd., Melbourne, Australia. (A training pamphlet?)
  • Mack, John A., 1956, “The Glacier Metal Experiments,” Political Quarterly, Turnstile Press, London, UK, July 1956, 27(3):311-323. Stevenson lecturer at U. Glasgow. Mack visited the Kilmarnock plant, read company policy documents on the works councils, read articles by Brown, read Jaques 1951 and 1956 - and got it. R&D kept the company viable. (Johnstone, Robertson, Kelly, and Mack were about the only academics to observe Glacier first-hand - all were positively impressed.) This article was the earliest cite ofMeasurement of Responsibility. Mack in Scotland had read it already and praised it. Tavi may have published it before Harvard. (See Norman Martin, October 1956.) *****
  • Mahler, Walter R., 1975, Structure, Power, and Results: how to organize your company for optimum performance, Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood, Ill., 247 pages. On Wilfred Brown 1960: “The organizational structure, procedures, and philosophy of Glacier Metal Company of London, as presented by its chairman and managing director” (reference, p. 240). “Some years ago, ... a diligent search of the literature revealed only one suggested process [for conducting an organization study]. This process had to do with identifying work elements and building up from these to the entire hierarchy. A thorough study of this particular process led me to conclude it was a rather narrow one. Further, as I observed the processes by which organizations were actually studied by managers, it became clear that this was one process they never utilized” (p. 5). Mahler had discovered the Brown-Jaques research process, which was scientific and unsuitable for business consulting. As a consultant, Mahler then launched himself to develop a practical process and described the phases of his learning: identify objectives or purposes first, then how structure helps accomplish the goals (accountability?), the benefits from alternative structures, delegation of authority and power, job design, and staffing. [His search kept circling back to Brown’s concepts.] A diagnostic analysis is needed on every organization (see Mahler 1974, Levinson 1972). Mahler introduced this to General Electric about this time. Also cited Newman 1951 and Cordiner 1956. SIBL offsite. Seen.
  • Maitland, John, 1998, "Weipa, Where Australian Unions Drew ‘Their Line in the Sand’ with CRA," Published by the CFMEU Mining and Energy Division, 361 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Maitland is the National Secretary of CFMEU.
  • McCusker, R., 1961, “Ice Cold at Glacier Metal,” Trade Union Affairs, Autumn/Winter, UK, p. 39-43. This starts as a book review ofExploration in Management by Wilfred Brown – and becomes more. McCusker was a trade union official at Glacier’s London factory, so this is also an insider’s sceptical view of the Glacier system. “Glacier Metal is genuinely trying to foresee its problems, to categorize them, and to plan their remedies ... [and] to prevent problems from arising.” He describes the three-part system: representative, legislative and appeals, and their human limitations as practiced. “To be fair to [Brown], let me say that he is not, in any way, opposed to the trade unions. If they are there that is all right by him, but I believe he thinks they are not necessary.” “The theory behind the company’s ideas reminds me somewhat of the theory behind management-trade union relations in Communist countries; i.e., we are all working together for the common good and thus there can be no differences between us.”
  • McDonald, Jim, and Nils Timo, 1996, “Killing the Union? Individualized Contracts and CRA,” in Griffin, Gerard, ed., Contemporary Research on Unions: Theory, Membership, Organisation and Non Standard Employment, National Key Centre in Industrial Relations (NKCIR) Monographs Nos 7 & 8 (in two volumes), 2:422-459 (also, 2:106-122), Monash Uni, Melbourne, Vic., AU. A review of the application of Jaques’ concepts at Hamersley Iron of Rio Tinto, with background. Cited in Fetter 2002 and Tracy 2003. Not seen. (Monash Uni. library in Melbourne has it.) (Ask Nils.) McDonald was at in New Zealand.
  • McGivering, Ian Charles, David G. J. Matthews, and William Henry Scott, 1960, Management in Britain: a general characterisation, The University Press, Liverpool, UK, 157 pages. A Liverpool University study of management practices across Britain. Found C. G. Renold and W. B. D. Brown to have the most advanced practices in British management. Glacier Metal’s plant level constitutional structure, management practices, and employee participation were highly recommended but little used elsewhere in Britain. Cited in Child 1969, Theocarakis 1990, Kono 1992. In U. Cambridge Library.
  • McGregor, Peter, 1995, “A Mining Company: inside business,” Centre for Economic Education, Albert Park, (Melbourne), VIC, Australia, 15 pages. This pamphlet is on CRA Limited, Mining schools and education - Australia. NatLibAU has it. Not seen.
  • Melbourne2003/Volume1_RefereedPapers/Tracy.pdf _ Supplemental Result
  • Moody, Roger, 1991, Plunder!, PARTiZANS/ CAFCA, London, UK, and Christchurch, New Zealand, 195 pages. Opponents of CRA and RTZ. Online but gone stale. NatLibAU has it.


  • Norington, Brad, 1997, “It’s Mine Warfare, Rio Tinto-style,” Sydney Morning Herald, John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 12/08/1997, p. 1. Rio Tinto’s campaign to breaking century-old, union-controlled work practices, especially seniority. This will lift coal exports 50 percent within a decade, from A$8 Bn to A$12 Bn. Pressure from London HQ to win or cut out. London is not wedded to Jaques’ theory. Decision this week is due from IR court.
  • Norington, Brad, 1997, “Mine Fight Only Start Of Assault,” Sydney Morning Herald, John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 17 November 1997, p. 19. (Norrington Is The Herald's Industrial Editor.) A battle over a coalmine, Hunter Valley No 1 colliery, an open-cut operation near Singleton, owned by Rio Tinto with almost 400 workers belonging to the Construction Forestry Mining and Energy Union (CFMEU). Rio Tinto has won this battle across its vast iron ore, alumina, gold and diamond interests as workers have shifted onto individual staff contracts in return for a handsome salary top-up. Rio Tinto wants to eliminate "third party" relationships that get in the way of management extracting the highest possible productivity from workers used in ways best suited to their ability. By third party relationships, Rio Tinto means unions. Also, its approach applies to the traditional umpire, the Industrial Relations Commission.
  • Norington, Brad, 2002, “Rio Tinto's U-turn Win For Workers,” Sydney Morning Herald, John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 6 March 2002, p. 5. (Norrington Is The Herald's Industrial Editor.) Rio Tinto has suddenly dumped its decade-long support for non-union individual contracts across its workforce with a surprise offer of collective arrangements for all employees at major mine sites. About 4000 workers at the company's Hamersley Iron, Argyle Diamonds, Robe River and Dampier Salt sites in Western Australia were yesterday offered collective agreements to replace their individual contracts. The decision is a dramatic turnaround from one-to-one employment relationships based on the theories of the former company guru Elliot Jaques (sic). [Error: Jaques opposed the move to individual contracts.]


  • O’Brien, John, 1994, “McKinsey, Fred Hilmer and the BCA: the 'New Management' model of labour market reform,” Journal of Industrial Relations, Sydney, NSW, Australia, Dec., 36:468-490. (BCA: Business Council of Australia.) A detailed and systematic review of Fred Hilmer’s writing and management agenda for Australia over the previous decade. Showed Hilmer’s enormous impact on the public dialogue, employment relations language and mindset toward labour unions, industrial relations and the level of wage bargaining (from national to enterprise level). Hilmer was head of McKinsey Consulting in Australia in the 1980s and worked closely with CRA/RTZ/Rio Tinto on strategy. He then wrote policy and implementation reports for BCA in these areas. See Hilmer. SIBL JBL 94-204.
  • Olivier, Andrew M., 1997, “Looking for Competitive Leverage for the 21st Century,” People Dynamics, Institute of People Management, South Africa, June 1997. (People Dynamics is the official HR magazine of the Institute of People Management, a statutory body in South Africa: ) This paper addresses levels of work, CPA and how they should be used for executive resourcing. This paper led to a conference sponsored by USAID in 1998 on “Building National Capability in Namibia.” At Namibian Conference papers presented by various speakers on use of CPA / Levels of Work in Billiton (mining), Namibia Post, Namibian Diary, and Namibian Breweries. Conference sponsored by Third Foundation System, USAID, and Institute of Personnel Management Namibia. Conference opened by the Namibian Prime Minister.


  • Paterson, T. T., 1977, “The Link between Pay and Decision-Making,”International Management, UK, Dec., 32(12):40-44. An interview by Sandra Salmans. The responsibility level and pay structure should be measured by a single factor - decision-making. These are six bands of decisions. (Eleven grades of jobs fall into these bands.) Many industries have adopted it: the civil service in Rhodesia and Denmark, all office staff in Finland, engineering in India, mining and agriculture in South Africa, and in hospitals and banks in France, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Intuitive feel will determine if a man is paid fairly. Executives make more and bigger decisions, so are paid more. Jaques not mentioned. Alt. Pro.
  • Pauley, Graeme S., and Richard J. Ormerod, 1998, “The Evolution of a Performance Measurement Project at RTZ,” Interfaces, INFORMS, July/Aug98, 28(4):94-118, 25p. In 1994, RTZ Corporation plc, the world's largest mining company, tried to reconcile (a) the desire of central management to compare performance across mine sites with (b) the desire of local management to judge performance in their own terms. The company began a project to establish a method of measuring open-pit productive capacity, to spread best practice, and to motivate higher performance. Initially we saw the solution as a simple model of equipment availability using hard OR derived using a participative process based on soft OR (operations research). Try outs in Australia, Southern Africa, and North America showed that we needed to combine various hard and soft OR methods and to move the emphasis to achieving breakthroughs in performance. The latest try out resulted in an increase in production of over 25 percent in the first year. [See references herein for a series of RTZ projects by these authors.] Pauley at Rio Tinto Technical Services, Castlemead, UK. Ex post. Ormerod at Warwick U. MS.
  • Peetz, David, 2002, “Decollectivist Strategies in Oceania,” Relations Industrielles/ Industrial Relations, Universite Laval/ Laval University, Quebec, Canada, Printemps/Spring, 57(2):252-281. (In English, Resume in French) ‘Oceania’ refers to George Orwell’s novel about Big Brother, 1984. Compared the emergence of “sophisticated decollectivist strategies” (union busting) in Australia to the state strategies of Oceania. CRA officers moved on to Commonwealth Bank and Telstra. Cited Bruce Hearn Mackinnon on Jaques’ dropping of works committees from the theory as it was applied in Australia. Jaques not cited. Peetz is at Griffith Uni, Brisbane. See Waring.
  • Pratt, Dennis, 1996, “Organisation Theories Can Live Together (Letter),” Business Review Weekly (BRW), John Fairfax Group, Australia, 22 January 1996, p. 81. “Fred Emery's Viewpoint column, ‘CRA pursues a dubious philosophy’ (Managing, December 18), was a sad continuation of a feud that has been going on between two giants of organisational theory for 40 years. In the 1950s, the Tavistock Institute in Britain produced two breakthroughs in the understanding of how organisations should be designed and managed: Emery and Trist developed socio-technical systems theory, and Elliott Jaques developed stratified systems theory. They are both useful theories. One helps an understanding of the way an organisation should be structured horizontally, the other in understanding the vertical structure, including the number of reporting layers there should be from the chief executive to the workplace. Most practitioners feel that the two theories have to be mutually exclusive. But they don't.” (See 1994, 2003.)


  • Rafferty, Eamonn, 2003, “Sir Robert departs as mine host,” Financial Times, London, UK and New York, NY, October 31, 2003, Friday, page 20. Sir Robert Wilson is set to retire in days as Rio Tinto’s executive chairman. Since 1985 the shares have risen seven fold and the firm is now the world’s third largest mining group. In 1989 Sir Robert acquired BP minerals and merged with CRA in 1995 but he sees plenty of room for growth without more acquisitions. China is now the biggest consumer of aluminium, steel and copper, which may hold risks. He will be succeeded by Paul Skinner, formerly of Shell, while CEO Leigh Clifford will take over day-to-day responsibility. A recent rocky patch led to write-downs.
  • Reviewed: American Journal of Sociology v. 58 (Nov. 1952) [with excerpt]; American Sociological Review v. 17 (Dec. 1952); Library Journal (1876) v. 77 (Sept. 1 1952) [with excerpt]; Management Review v. 41 (Aug. 1952) [with excerpt]; Spectator v. 187 (July 27 1951) [with excerpt]; Researchv. 5 (March 1952) p. 140-1; Moult, V. J., 1952, Changing culture of a factory [Reply],Research, April 1952, 5:187.
  • Reviewed: Choice v. 21 (Sept. 1983) [with excerpt]; The Times Literary Supplement (Apr. 8 1983) [with excerpt]; American Journal of Sociology v. 91 (Nov. 1985); Personnel Psychology v. 36 (Aut 1983).
  • Rowbottom, Ralph William, 1977, Social Analysis: a collaborative method of gaining usable scientific knowledge of social institutions, Heinemann, London, UK. The methodology used at Glacier Metal and developed over 15+ years is described and critiqued. This method is the source of Jaques’ theory and the consultancy. Excellent bibliography on social analysis. Now widely used. (See book review by Hugh Foot.)
  • RTZ Corporation PLC, CRA Limited, 1999, Annual Report to Shareholders. Registered Office, 55 Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, and the RTZ Corporation PLC, 6 St James Square, London.
  • RTZ. See: Rio Tinto/ RTZ/ CRA/ Comalco Company Documents (in a separate section)


  • Tait, Nikki, 1995, “Mining a Seam of Controversy,” The Financial Times,London, UK, September 29, n32793, p. 13(1). In 1991 2/3 of CRA’s 17,000 employees were unionized. Now, vast majority are on individual staff contracts. CRA’s hierarchy profile: one 7; seven 6s; fifty 5s; two-hundred 4s. Skill-based assignments to roles.·
  • Thorne, C. G., 1997, “Growing Faith in Managerial Leadership: A Prospect for Change in Australian Workplaces,” JOM, 49(5):13-14. From a paper presented to the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society annual meeting, Florida, USA. February 1997. RTZ-CRA recognised the need for a continuous improvement culture: success will come from creating a workplace environment that moves all employees to behave constructively in support of the right business objectives to achieve competitive advantage. Cited in Lynch PhD 2004.
  • Timo, Nils, 1997, “Human Resource Management in an Australian Mining Company,” Employee Relations, Australia, 19(4):337-352. On Jaques’ theory. [Alterative title: 1997, “The Management of Individualism in an Australian Mining Company.” See Patricia Bovington at CQU. Alternative date and title: 2001, “The Management of Individualism in ...” See Tracy 2003.]
  • Timo, Nils, 1998, “Precarious Employment and Individual Contracts in an Australian Mining Company,” Labour and Industry: a journal of the social and economic relations of work, Melbourne, Vic., Australia, Aug., 9(1):53-68. Not seen.
  • Timo, Nils, 2001, “The Social Scientist as Change Agent: Elliott Jaques and the Individualist Imperative,” Journal of Australian Political Economy, June, 47:96-120. Fills a gap in the literature regarding the role of management theories in shaping business and HRM strategies by looking at the context and application of Elliott Jaques’s concepts at Rio Tinto in Australia. “According to Jaques, this way of analysing and designing organisations ensures that the exercise of power and authority becomes clear, orderly, efficient and humane.” However, this approach deflects attention from their legitimacy and the way they are challenged. Rio Tinto was using Jaques’s ideas as part of a broader business and de-unionisation strategy. Unionists must understand management theory if they are to maintain workplace representational rights. Timo is on faculty at Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Queensland, Australia. ·
  • Tracy, Julie, 2003, “Individual Agreements at Hamersley Iron,” AIRAANZ 2003 Conference Proceedings (17th?), Melbourne, Vic, Australia, Volume 1: Refereed Papers, online, 9 pages. The Office of the Employment Advocate. A review and history of the application of Jaques’ concepts at Hamersley Iron of Rio Tinto in the Pilbara, Western Australia, 1979-2003. Jaques promoted managerial restructuring in the 1980s. Ian MacDonald extended this to individual employee agreements/ contracts from the mid-1980s (AIRC 054/1996). The employees accepted them in 1992-1995 but they restored the union in 2002 due to lack of trust. Detailed primary sources. Cited Jaques 1980, J. McDonald and Timo 1996, Thompson and Bulbeck 1982.··
  • Trinca, Helen, 1997, “The Art of War,” Sydney Morning Herald, John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 12/08/1997, p. 11. A nice precis of the Jaques project at Comalco/ Rio Tinto in the 1980s and 1990s. Discusses Hilmer *, Jaques* *, Carnegie, Brady, Clifford, Macdonald, Ludeke*, K. Stewart, Johnson and McLeod. (* = books on Comalco/CRA/ Rio Tinto). Introduction to the theory. *****·(,
  • Turner, Arthur N., 1989, "BkRev Dynamic Manufacturing: creating the learning organization, by Hayes, Robert H., Steven C. Wheelwright, and Kim B. Clark," Human Resource Management, Wiley, Summer 1989, 28(2):297-299. They "emphasize the need for major change in assumptions and practices in the management of human resources." Historically we have allowed a division between academic cleverness and learning from experience (white collar vs blue collar) in order to constantly improve performance. The loss of practical experience through downsizing is devastating against international competition. Restoring the balance is now profitable. A very positive review.


  • Waring, Peter Arnold, 2000, Individualism and Collectivism in Contemporary Employment Relations: the Australian Black Coal Mining Industry Experience, Ph.D., thesis in Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management, School of Management, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia, 386 pages. Auchmuty Library THESIS 2267. Abstract not online. Published as two articles: Waring 1999 and 2001. Recent on the Australian coal industry has highlighted the difficulties the industry faces arising from reduced world coal prices, escalating production costs, and overall declining levels of profitability, despite strong demand for coal. In response to these difficulties, management have sought, via enterprise bargaining, to increase labor flexibility and productivity, and weaken union control at the mine site level. State and Commonwealth legislation encouraged individual contract formation during the 1990s. Examined the contents of certified agreements struck in the coal mining districts of NSW and Queensland since 1995. The analysis focuses on changing work organization, external labor arrangements, union security and retrenchment provisions, and other industrial relations issues. It is argued that the frontier of control at the mine site level has shifted considerably in favor of management during the 1990s, although not to the extent expected. (This was begun at CRA (now Rio Tinto) with Carnegie, Jaques, and Macdonald beginning in the late 1970s. This has to include the Weipa disputes.) See 1998 and 2000 conference presentations. Not seen. Related.
  • Waring, Peter, 1999, “The Rise of Individualism in Australian Industrial Relations,” New Zealand Journal of Industrial Relations, Wellington, NZ, Oct., 24(3):291-318. State and Commonwealth legislation encouraged individual contract formation during the 1990s. Coupled with individualistic HRM techniques, this has led to a trend toward individualism in industrial relations policy and practice. This was begun at CRA (now Rio Tinto) with Carnegie, Jaques, and Macdonald beginning in the late 1970s. Collective industrial relations remain dominant. See Waring Related PhD 2000.
  • Waring, Peter, and Michael Barry, 2001, “The changing frontier of control in coal: Evidence from a decade of enterprise bargaining in the Australian black coal mining industry,”Australian Bulletin of Labour, Adelaide, SA, AU, Sep 2001, 27(3):216-237. Recent research on the Australian coal industry has highlighted the difficulties the industry faces arising from reduced world coal prices, escalating production costs, and overall declining levels of profitability, despite strong demand for coal. In response to these difficulties, management have sought, via enterprise bargaining, to increase labor flexibility and productivity, and weaken union control at the mine site level. This paper examines the contents of certified agreements struck in the coal mining districts of NSW and Queensland since 1995. The analysis focuses on changing work organization, external labor arrangements, union security and retrenchment provisions, and other industrial relations issues. It is argued that the frontier of control at the mine site level has shifted considerably in favor of management during the 1990s, although not to the extent expected. See Conner and Waring 2002; Kessler and Purcell 1995. Based on Waring 2000 Related PhD. Misc.
  • Wellens, John, 1974, “Anniversary Blues,” Industrial and Commercial Training, Oct74, 6(10):443-446, 4p; (AN 4625042). The ICT’s fifth anniversary issue. A review of the changed concepts on industrial democracy over the prior five years. It had started with McGregor’s distinction between autocratic and participative organizations. But when employees ordered their own contribution to the corporate endeavor, Herzberg declared himself opposed. In Britain the division is between the supervisory board concept and that of works councils. Supervisory board members suffered severe divided loyalty. Glacier Metal adopted works councils in 1941, 11 years before they became law in Germany. They are a form of joint decision-making but require many changes first: disclosure and transparency of information, changes in performance appraisal, and perhaps employee shareholding. As Bertram Russell put it - society’s biggest problem was how to achieve authority without arrogance and service without servility.
  • Wellens, John. 1977, “The Organic Approach,” Industrial and Commercial Training, Wellens Publishing, Guilsborough, Northampton, UK, Dec77, 9(12):500-504, 5p; (AN 4626895). Britain faced two roads toward employee participation: imposed by legislation or organically grown. Wellens outlined steps for a path of organic growth in each firm. Felt works councils would naturally emerge along this path. Favored unanimous voting and the Glacier Metal model.
  • Wilkinson, Barry, and Nick Oliver, 1990, “Japanese Influences on British Industrial Culture,” chapter (p. 333-354) in Clegg, Stewart R., and S. Gordon Redding, eds., 1990, Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures, De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 444 p. Their number was small but their influence was great. They led the changes. The government’s laissez-faire policies did not appear to be helping British-owned firms in their attempts to keep up. Working in a Japanese company is distinctly different from working in a traditional British company. Total quality principles are followed: responsibility, accountability, flexibility and teamwork, and backed by JIT, multi-skilled teams, responsible for their own inspection, maintenance, materials handling, etc. Rewards are designed to encourage flexibility. Bell-to-bell working is expected. Employees are assessed on multiple criteria and even on those beyond the contract. Responsibility and authority for quality is pushed downwards toward the work team. High job security is offered and raw recruits are sought. Trade unions become enterprise unions - like the Japanese. Commitment to the firm’s success. They are all over their suppliers - two and three times a day.·· Some British firms have tried to emulate these firms - Norsk Hydro at Humberside is one after Nissan. The labour cost advantage is 50%-100%. Long-termism is one Japanese strategic motto, whereas the British firms are wed to their short-term cost goals. Helped by three MBA dissertations by Jon Morris, Ken Khi Pang, and Simon Gleave in the late 1980s at Cardiff. Unaware of Jaques, this theory or any Japanese connection to Glacier Metals. Misc.
  • Witcher, Barry J., and Rosemary Butterworth, 2001, “Hoshin Kanri: Policy Management In Japanese-Owned UK Subsidiaries,”Journal of Management Studies, Blackwell, UK, July 2001, 38(5):651-674. Hoshin Kanri (policy management) is a (largely unreported) form of corporate-wide management (begun in the 1960s per Akao 1991) that combines strategic management and operational management by linking the achievement of top management goals with daily management at an operation level. It is a Western cultural blind spot: organization-wide governance [Lillrank 1995]. The research explored three Japanese manufacturing UK-based subsidiaries and its relation to conventional planning, MBO (management by objectives), and the balanced scorecard (BSC) tools. Hoshin Kanri is an organizing framework for policy-based objectives. These are translated into QCDE (quality, cost, delivery, education) targets, participation and process-based, good cross functional management and multi-layered review systems which are used in daily management to drive progress. TQM was already in existence. Some of the main issues include changes in organization and personnel, problems with administering periodic review, and cross-functional working in departmental forms of organization. Both at Uni. of East Anglia, UK. [Sounds like Glacier Metal.] See Yoji Akao 1991, Paul Lillrank 1995, Dunphy 1986. Misc.
  • Wood, Stuart, 1999, “BHP is Still Bogged Down in the Past,” Australian Financial Review, Sydney (?), Australia, 10/18/1999, p. 21. Quotes a Rio Tinto exec: “BHP has these magnificent assets and they are just pissing them away with this pathetic productivity.” Mentions Carnegie, Business Council of Australia, and “Hilmer’s ‘enterprise bargaining’ reforms of the late ‘ 80s.” “Comalco received a 20 per cent boost in productivity within the first year of introducing individual employment contracts” (1995).

Link to other project-related information on the site:

Project principals

Major organizations and consulting firms that provide Requisite Organization-based services

A global association of academics, managers, and consultants that focuses on spreading RO implementation practices and encouraging their use
Dr. Gerry Kraines, the firms principal, combines Harry Levinson's leadership frameworks with Elliott Jaques's Requisite Organization. He worked closely with Jaques over many years, has trained more managers in these methods than anyone else in the field, and has developed a comprehensive RO-based software for client firms.
Ron Capelle is unique in his multiple professional certifications, his implementation of RO concepts through well designed organization development methods, and his research documenting the effectiveness of his firm's interventions
Former RO-experienced CEO, Ron Harding, provides coaching to CEOs of start-ups and small and medium-size companies that are exploring their own use of RO concepts.  His role is limited, temporary and coordinated with the RO-based consultant working with the organization
Founded by Gillian Stamp, one of Jaques's colleagues at Brunel, the firm modified Jaques;s work-levels, developed the Career Path Appreciation method, and has grown to several hundred certified assessors in aligned consulting firms world-wide recently expanding to include organization design
Requisite Organization International Institute distributes Elliott Jaques's books, papers, and videos and provides RO-based training to client organizations